It is a polypeptide that is produced in the atria of the heart and activated when the atrial stretch receptors become stimulated in response to hypervolemia
, increased sodium, and/or an expanded preload (Braunwald et al.
One approach currently used for cerebral vasospasm is hyperdynamic therapy, also known as Triple-H therapy, which utilizes induced hypervolemia
, hemodilution and hypertension.
To treat vasospasm, induced hypertension and hypervolemia
(also known as Triple-H therapy) are frequently utilized.
Water immersion provides a potent natriuretic impulse due to redistribution of blood volume with relative hypervolemia
Plasma AVP levels within normal ranges are physiologically inappropriate in the presence of hyponatremia and/or hypervolemia
The first case of pulmonary edema without hypervolemia
was reported in 1951.
Although the hypervolemia
and tachycardia may exacerbate mitral valve obstruction, echocardiographic measurement of mitral stenosis severity including 2D valve area, Doppler gradients and pressure half time valve area, remain valid in pregnancy allowing optimization of patient monitoring and therapy (8).
The vasospasm was treated with induced hypertension and hypervolemia
, using norepinephrine and dobutamine drips to maintain a systolic BP of 160-180 mm Hg as well as packed red blood cells and isotonic fluids to keep her central venous pressure (CVP) >8 mm Hg.