Formally demonstrating the existence of coordination failure underinvestment in the increasing marginal costs model is simply a matter of invoking the equivalence under quantity competition, observed by Vives (1990), between differentiated products with constant marginal costs and homogeneous products
with increasing marginal costs, let inverse demand for the homogeneous good be
In general," say the authors, "the degree of substitutability was higher for homogeneous products
(petroleum is an apt example) than for highly differentiated products.
This technique works well for products that are a little outside your general merchandise concept or for homogeneous products
that logically can be separated from the general catalog.
As an alternative, homogeneous products
without solid particles undergo sterile filtration prior to being fed into the operating vessel in case some components are sensitive to temperature and deteriorate when heated.
Wherever possible, HMR producers have installed vertical form and fill packagers for homogeneous products
, such as cut salads.
1) It is now textbook-commonplace that, for homogeneous products
, if each rival assumes that the other rival will let him do so, this type of rivalry would lead to the competitive result of price set equal to marginal cost.
In this world view, unless there are numerous buyers and sellers of homogeneous products
under conditions of near full information (a condition that rarely or virtually never occurs in the real world), monopolists, or oligopolists or "imperfect competitors" will raise prices and reduce quantities offered for sale.
1) However, to accomplish this task they restrict their analysis to homogeneous products
, linear demand curves, constant marginal costs, and Cournot competition.
so numerous that no one firm can fix or influence