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the selection of part of a total population of consumers or products whose behaviour or performance can be analysed, in order to make inferences about the behaviour or performance of the total population, without the difficulty and expense of undertaking a complete census of the whole population.

Samples may be chosen randomly, with every consumer or product in the population having an equal chance of being included. Random samples are most commonly used by firms in QUALITY CONTROL where they are used as a basis for selecting products, components or materials for quality testing.

Alternatively, samples may be chosen by dividing up the total population into a number of distinct sub-groups or strata, then selecting a proportionate number of consumers or products from each sub-group since this is quicker and cheaper than random sampling. In MARKETING RESEARCH and opinion polling, quota sampling is usually employed where interviewers select the particular consumers to be interviewed, choosing the numbers of these consumers in proportion to their occurrence in the total population.

Samples may be:

  1. cross-sectional, where sample observations are collected at a particular point in time, for example data on company sales and the incomes of consumers in the current year, embracing a wide range of different income groups, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income;
  2. longitudinal, where sample observations are collected over a number of time periods, for example data on changes in company sales over a number of years and changes in consumer incomes over the same time periods, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income. See STATISTICAL INFERENCES, QUESTIONNAIRE.
References in periodicals archive ?
The NW-A26HN Walkman comes bundled with High-Resolution Audio compatible Digital Noise Cancelling headphones.
Sony DSEE HX TM upscaling also means that non High-Resolution Audio files are as near to this standard as they can possibly be.
With an impedance of 150 ohms, the CL750 is optimised for use with amplifiers, and is certified as high-resolution audio capable by the Japan Audio Society.
The boutique has five distinct product zones for gaming, mobility, digital imaging, home entertainment and high-resolution audio.
5 The long awaited ability to ingest XDCAM's proxy video with high-resolution audio is now a reality.
With the growing popularity of high-resolution audio available for Internet download, Pioneer's networked audio players are designed to handle and expertly reproduce high-resolution digital music.
Offering a frequency response of 10 to 42,000 HZ, the headphones are suitable for reproducing high-resolution audio files.
LDAC transmits approximately three times more data (at the maximum transfer rate: 990 kbps) than conventional Bluetooth Audio, which allows you to enjoy High-Resolution Audio content in exceptional sound quality near to High-Resolution Audio.
5mm jack - and there's no adaptor available meaning you'll only ever be able to use these with an iOS device - the all-digital connection coupled with a 24bit/192kHz DAC built into the cans means you can listen to 48kHz high-resolution audio files properly for the first time on an iPhone.
Olive enforces its commitment to HD by partnering with Grammy Award-winning Chesky Records, producer of high-resolution audio recordings.
A perfect match for your Walkman(R), MP3 player, phone or tablet, hear blends style, comfort, on-the-go practicality and stunning High-Resolution Audio quality.
Each of the 3 new EA series controllers is also positioned as the first home-automation controllers with built-in support for high-resolution audio.

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