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the selection of part of a total population of consumers or products whose behaviour or performance can be analysed, in order to make inferences about the behaviour or performance of the total population, without the difficulty and expense of undertaking a complete census of the whole population.

Samples may be chosen randomly, with every consumer or product in the population having an equal chance of being included. Random samples are most commonly used by firms in QUALITY CONTROL where they are used as a basis for selecting products, components or materials for quality testing.

Alternatively, samples may be chosen by dividing up the total population into a number of distinct sub-groups or strata, then selecting a proportionate number of consumers or products from each sub-group since this is quicker and cheaper than random sampling. In MARKETING RESEARCH and opinion polling, quota sampling is usually employed where interviewers select the particular consumers to be interviewed, choosing the numbers of these consumers in proportion to their occurrence in the total population.

Samples may be:

  1. cross-sectional, where sample observations are collected at a particular point in time, for example data on company sales and the incomes of consumers in the current year, embracing a wide range of different income groups, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income;
  2. longitudinal, where sample observations are collected over a number of time periods, for example data on changes in company sales over a number of years and changes in consumer incomes over the same time periods, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income. See STATISTICAL INFERENCES, QUESTIONNAIRE.
Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
With some of LG's premium soundbars supporting high-resolution audio via an advanced processing algorithm that can upscale conventional file formats, the output comes even closer to studio quality.
Sony DSEE HX TM upscaling also means that non High-Resolution Audio files are as near to this standard as they can possibly be.
The development of high-resolution audio has been at the works at Apple with streaming quality up to 96kHz/24-bit audio, unnamed audio industry sources told the Japanese blog.
High-resolution audio compatibility and accurate bass responses are complemented by the 40mm HD driver unit that reproduces sounds of up to 60kHz, while lightweight CCAW voice coils yield high-linearity responses in high-pitched sounds.
Sony's new High-Resolution Audio Headset MDR-NC750 allows combined
There's the worry with its new features that Spotify may take its eye off its core use - delivering what stands as currently the best music subscription service with the best library, particularly as there's no sign here of support for high-resolution audio - a feature that many audiophiles have desired for some time.
- All smartphones and tablets featuring high-resolution audio for enjoyment of music exceeding CD quality(3).
The new series of high quality audio set series called "High-Resolution Audio", which equals the quality of compact disc (CD).
OraStream solves the problem by making it easy and practical to offer high-resolution audio streams without having to force consumers to store excessively large files on their devices.
It also features stainless steel housings in Aerophonic design along with a new braided OFC cable and is certified as high-resolution audio capable by Japan Audio Society.

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