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the selection of part of a total population of consumers or products whose behaviour or performance can be analysed, in order to make inferences about the behaviour or performance of the total population, without the difficulty and expense of undertaking a complete census of the whole population.

Samples may be chosen randomly, with every consumer or product in the population having an equal chance of being included. Random samples are most commonly used by firms in QUALITY CONTROL where they are used as a basis for selecting products, components or materials for quality testing.

Alternatively, samples may be chosen by dividing up the total population into a number of distinct sub-groups or strata, then selecting a proportionate number of consumers or products from each sub-group since this is quicker and cheaper than random sampling. In MARKETING RESEARCH and opinion polling, quota sampling is usually employed where interviewers select the particular consumers to be interviewed, choosing the numbers of these consumers in proportion to their occurrence in the total population.

Samples may be:

  1. cross-sectional, where sample observations are collected at a particular point in time, for example data on company sales and the incomes of consumers in the current year, embracing a wide range of different income groups, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income;
  2. longitudinal, where sample observations are collected over a number of time periods, for example data on changes in company sales over a number of years and changes in consumer incomes over the same time periods, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income. See STATISTICAL INFERENCES, QUESTIONNAIRE.
References in periodicals archive ?
5, both units feature high-resolution audio playback which can support 192kHz/24-Bit FLAC and WAV files that are now available from a number of Internet sites.
SHARC is the processor of choice for a variety of audio markets and has proven to be ideal for CreamWare and other manufacturers developing professional audio applications because it is optimized to process high-resolution audio algorithms.
Experience High-Resolution audio like never before with the Walkman NW-ZX2 which can reproduce master quality recordings just as the artists originally intended.
today introduced the AVH-P7800DVD, the first in-vehicle entertainment product to handle a wide variety of high-resolution audio technologies and high quality video in a one-box solution.
Promotes superior audiovisual experiences through 4K and High-Resolution Audio as well as new modes of living through life-logging with its expanding and diverse range of SmartWear devices
High-resolution audio and video content can now be streamed over WiFi not only to passenger devices but also to tablets integrated in the seat.
To complement the high-resolution picture capability, the BDP-HD1 reproduces new high-resolution audio formats: DTS-HD and Dolby Digital for a complete HD entertainment experience.
The chipset can also send high-resolution audio and video data from the host processor to multiple displays or other electronic control units in the car, and it has a High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI[sup.
An analysis of today's audio systems is offered along with some predictions of where high-resolution audio may be headed.
We can now record, broadcast and mix in high-resolution audio in a live setting as well as archive and preserve all Opry stage performances.
The Auro-3D Auriga(TM) is an impressive, true 3D audio, AV Receiver, a state-of-the-art processor delivering a 540A hemispherical sound field with high-resolution audio in each channel and with full backwards compatibility.
The flagship model, SRS-X9 wireless speaker, supports High-Resolution Audio.

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