hierarchy

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Hierarchy

In human relations, governance in which who is in power over whom is clearly defined. For example, a hierarchy may exist with a company owner and three employees in that the owner is in charge of the employees. Hierarchy is easy to understand; power structures are marked and followed. It may be contrasted with a heterarchy, but one may exist within the other.
Farlex Financial Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All Rights Reserved

hierarchy

  1. any pattern of social relationships where some individuals have AUTHORITY over others.
  2. the vertical structure of an ORGANIZATION. Generally there will be a number of management levels in the hierarchy with each having authority over the one beneath it. In a very small organization there might be only two levels in the hierarchy – the manager and the managed. In larger organizations the number will be greater, though it is rarely above eight. Organizations with a high number of levels are said to be tall whilst those with only two or three are said to be flat. There is an inverse relationship with the SPAN OF CONTROL. Where the latter is high, i.e. each manager supervises a large number of subordinates, there will be a tendency towards a flat structure. For the same number of total staff, a low span of control will be associated with a tall structure. See ORGANIZATION CHART, DE-LAYERING.
Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson

hierarchy

the ORGANIZATION of economic activities within the FIRM. The internal hierarchy of management levels within the firm can, under certain circumstances, take responsibility for economic transactions rather than conduct them at arm's length through external MARKET relationships. See INTERNALIZATION.
Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The series of rights established are reduced to guaranteeing cultural recognition policies and refer to static cultural representations, which are limited to guaranteeing conditions for Andean peoples to conserve and develop their forms of social organization, knowledge, clothing, among others, denying the conflict and the processes of hierarchization and social exclusion that arise from the cultural identity of migrants.
The identification of determining factors has reinforced the findings of Harding (1991), Wajcman (2004) and Carstensen (2009) regarding the negative impact of hierarchization and segregation in the health-care sector according to the different roles played by women and men in this sector despite the increased participation of women in Web 2.0 (Schonberger, 2008) and the promotion of Health 2.0 (Traver and Borras, 2013).
The reason why emphasis will be placed on the need for dialogic administration is because deep down, especially in practice wherein reality unfolds, the basic pillars of traditional managerial thinking continue to prevail, such as hierarchization, differences in category, separation of roles, individualism, distrust, believing in scientific administration, disavow workers as valid interlocutors, resistance from managers to lose their prestige and the lack of training of workers who remain in obedience and submission (Aktouf, 2009; Gantman, Yousfi and Aleadipani, 2015; Ibarra-Colado, 2006).
(McCann, 2010) Sexuality is a system (Henderson, 2016) of social demarcation and hierarchization, intrinsically comparable to that of money.
Fredrickson (2011), then cultural racism is only a manifestation of racism, and the only difference compared to biological racism would be the criteria which are used to determine and justify the differentiation and hierarchization of human groups.
While it is the large one-to-many participation frameworks of school classrooms, bureaucracies, and the media, and the complex responses to the forms of language used within them that help produce and circulate or imitate 'standard languages' (Agha, 2007; Goebel, 2015, 2016; Inoue, 2006; Urban, 2001), this hierarchization process has its genesis in much smaller-scale activities.
For the Buddhist-epistemological school of Dignaga and Dharmakirti (otherwise known as the Pramanavada) (A), (B), and (C) can be conceived as each a representation or form (akara) of value, all three mediated by cognitive relations that imply a hierarchization of their objects or supporting conditions (alambana).
As we will see throughout the trilogy, social hierarchization and stratification is at play here.
On the other hand, the quantification of insecurity and associated categorizations provide a specific understanding and hierarchization of the world, which classify countries according to the experiences of a marginal, yet elite, group.
This lack of hierarchization is nothing like a "flow" or "live stream," but leaves a sense of interruption and stuckness.
In taking on a new dimension, race discourse shifted from simply referring to social groupings to a state of hierarchization, which was legitimatized by scientific methods that valued and devalued particular groups (McWhorter 2004, 49).
(2) Arruda (3) makes an interesting conceptual parallel between Social Representation Theories (SRT) and Feminism, since both are intended to reveal and/or conceptualize aspects of objects hitherto undervalued by science, considered as minor (women and common sense), demystifying such hierarchization. In this way, one participates in the other when it comes to analyzing the representation of women in different contexts.