hierarchy

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Hierarchy

In human relations, governance in which who is in power over whom is clearly defined. For example, a hierarchy may exist with a company owner and three employees in that the owner is in charge of the employees. Hierarchy is easy to understand; power structures are marked and followed. It may be contrasted with a heterarchy, but one may exist within the other.
Farlex Financial Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All Rights Reserved

hierarchy

  1. any pattern of social relationships where some individuals have AUTHORITY over others.
  2. the vertical structure of an ORGANIZATION. Generally there will be a number of management levels in the hierarchy with each having authority over the one beneath it. In a very small organization there might be only two levels in the hierarchy – the manager and the managed. In larger organizations the number will be greater, though it is rarely above eight. Organizations with a high number of levels are said to be tall whilst those with only two or three are said to be flat. There is an inverse relationship with the SPAN OF CONTROL. Where the latter is high, i.e. each manager supervises a large number of subordinates, there will be a tendency towards a flat structure. For the same number of total staff, a low span of control will be associated with a tall structure. See ORGANIZATION CHART, DE-LAYERING.
Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson

hierarchy

the ORGANIZATION of economic activities within the FIRM. The internal hierarchy of management levels within the firm can, under certain circumstances, take responsibility for economic transactions rather than conduct them at arm's length through external MARKET relationships. See INTERNALIZATION.
Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
On the contrary, a hierarchy is judged as not being respected when the Subject presents some of the properties being located at the right of the scales and the Object or by-phrase has a property placed towards the left extreme, thus violating the prediction established by the priority hierarchies. For example, the notation an > h shows that the Animacy Hierarchy (human (h) > other animate (an) > inanimate force (f) > other inanimate (in)) has not being fulfilled since a term with the property non-human animate (an) has been more accessible to Subject than another constituent in the same predication which is human (h).
These hierarchies give managers the appropriate level information for their needs while also providing analysts with a path to drill down into the details they require to answer more specific questions about the information before them.
Diederichsen's 1990 equation of the "social question" in art circles with hierarchies, sacrifices, and a sociopsychological tension that at least keeps the social from vanishing is in part based on recollections of situations created and exploited by Kippenberger and his "tribe." Another close reader of the social workings of the art scene, Michael Krebber--an artist admittedly as ambitious as he was intimidated and attracted by the power games around him--recalls the "soap opera" at Hammerstein's, where "every table was occupied by a clique" and everyone carefully surveyed the quasi-natural order of things and people: "It was like war for me sometimes."
NIST's RBAC controls access to computer system networks based on the users role in an organization, automatically handling complexities introduced by organizational hierarchies and separation-of-duty requirements.
In their review and critique of the advertising hierarchy, Barry and Howard (1990) considered five alternative order hierarchies of effect.
Pooler explains hierarchies in general before applying them to his chosen topics.
During the 20th Century, however, in business and professional organizations, there has been a trend towards "flattening" the multiple levels of hierarchies, as well as empowering selected workers and groups.
Depending on the programming language, the latter may not be the case for class hierarchies so that conceptual type hierarchies and class hierarchies are not generally isomorphic to each other [6].
Usenet discussions are structured into hierarchies identified through naming conventions that help identify the topical nature of die content in each of its over 5,000 groups.
Williamson (1975) famously argued that there is a fundamental trade-off between markets and hierarchies (large-scale firms or government agencies) in economies.
The three major changes nwere to 1) create two separate hierarchies, 2) elevate the authority of Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) consensus positions and AICPA Accounting Standards Executive Committee (AcSEC) practice bulletins, and 3) make each category of the hierarchy a separate level of authority.