Structure and receptor binding preferences of recombinant hemagglutinins
from avian and human H6 and H10 influenza A virus subtypes.
Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin
gene confers protection against homologous and heterologous H5N1 influenza virus infections in macaques.
Although all flu viruses carry a variant of the hemagglutinin
gene, Kawaoka says that the 1918 version "does something different, but we don't know how it does it."--C.B.
All 8 viral genome segments (polymerase basic protein [PB] 2, PB1, polymerase acidic protein (PA), hemagglutinin
(HA), nucleocapsid protein (NP), neuraminidase (NA), matrix protein (MP), and nonstructural protein (NS) are closely related to the equine influenza A(H3N8) viruses that have recently been circulating among the horse population in Asia; this lineage is evolutionarily distinct from the influenza A(H3N8) viruses circulating among birds in Asia (online Technical Appendix Figures 1-7, http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/EID/article/20/12/14-0435- Techapp1.pdf).
Studies of the binding properties of influenza hemagglutinin
Known as the "receptor binding site" (RBS), this viral site is located on the heads of viral hemagglutinins
, spiky structures of sugar and protein that coat the viral envelope.
Of these specimens, 78 (5.7%) were confirmed by hemagglutinin
inhibition (HI) assay to be positive for H9, and sequencing data for 55 virus isolates were generated.
With 18 hemagglutinin
varieties and 11 types of neuraminidase -- most carried by birds -- there are lots of potential combinations.
Following this US FDA approval, the providers will be able to use the same dose of FLUARIX QUADRIVALENT (15 ug of hemagglutinin
per virus strain in 0.5 mL) to cover all eligible persons from six months of age and up, added the company.
Certain parts of the fast-evolving viral protein hemagglutinin
are unusually tolerant of change, Bloom and Bargavi Thyagarajan, who was a postdoctoral researcher in Bloom's lab, reported in 2014 in eLife.
Scientists from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and Johnson & Johnson's Janssen pharmaceutical subsidiary reported they had mimicked a protein on the flu virus known as a hemagglutinin--and in particular a portion of the protein called the hemagglutinin
head, where many mutations occur--helping them develop experimental vaccines that protected animals against numerous flu types.
In vivo assay and sequencing of the hemagglutinin
protein cleavage site classified the virus as a North American genetic lineage of low pathogenicity for chickens.