The amount is equivalent to five times the total hard currency
that Venezuela has sold in 2018 via hard currency
auctions that are carried out under the country's 15-year-old exchange control system, according figures compiled by local consultancy Sintesis Financiera.
Against this backdrop, experts said South Korea should tighten its vigilance over Pyongyang's possible hacking attacks aimed at earning hard currency
to support its missile developments and keep the regime afloat.
But the government should also lift hard currency
curbs imposed by the central bank, Adesina said.
Aid transfers pale in comparison to the country's needs for hard currency
, which climbed close to $80bn in the 2014&ndash%3
PCB said in a press release that the current rise in Pakistan's reserves of hard currency
is attributed to several factors, including higher revenues of Pakistanis living abroad and the new financial amounts that Pakistan has received from donors, most recently were $ 500 million from the World Bank, and $ 400 million from Asian Development Bank.
Davis joins the emerging markets debt portfolio engineering team as a trader, primarily responsible for trading hard currency
sovereign and corporate bonds.
deficits, lower-than-average total hard currency
reserves and lower
"People needing to change hard currency
into Egyptian pounds are now going to the black market to get more for their money," reports Niveen Wahish for Al-Ahram Weekly, who adds this is the case for exporters as well as importers.
Romania's FX reserves saw a marginal increase in January, increasing to E31.5bn from E31.2bn in the previous month.By our estimation this suggests the NBR purchased about E0.3bn of hard currency
the past month as it stemmed the rally of the RON.This estimation is very close to our updated calculation for December and is a surprise for us as we inferred from the intraday trading pattern that the NBR had picked up significantly more hard currency
during the past month, possibly almost E1bn.Assuming FX interventions were relatively small, this would suggest the market force of the recent rally was not far from the end result that was visible in the market following the supposed NBR interventions.
Soft & Hard currency
: Standard monetization systems for purchasing items in-game.
and European sanctions against Iran's energy and banking sectors, imposed over its controversial nuclear programme, have slashed its oil revenues, which are the major source of its hard currency