It was established in 1352 by the two Cambridge guilds of Corpus Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary to train priests in theology and canon law, and to provide prayers for the souls of guildsmen
In Italian towns, prominent families, clans, factions, tower societies, guildsmen
, youth abbeys, and minorities, such as Jews and foreigners, fought or negotiated for their own spatial autonomy and distinctive place in the community.
Prussian and French intervention - secularization, constitutional reform, freedom of trades - eroded the power base of clerics and guildsmen
while laying the groundwork for the formation of a new municipal elite.
While the actors of the late fifteenth century had been amateurs, guildsmen
or the servants of noble houses, early in the sixteenth century acting began to become a profession, or at least a trade.
Schama cites a number of examples of Bourbon hubris, but seems unaware how odious and, in time, how intolerable such behavior and rhetoric might seem to eighteenth century merchants, farmers, guildsmen
and shopkeepers (not to mention aristocrats and churchmen, whose own hubris was being encroached upon).
They marched as one united body, but the mayor and aldermen escorted the consecrated eucharistic host more closely than common councillors, councillors more closely than guildsmen
, higher-status crafts before lower.
Certainly we have reason to believe that the attitude toward the republic -- so critical to the viability of its palace -- would have been newly sanguine and increasingly optimistic, for it had now proven itself by having survived a long, bitter war, quasi-revolutionary constitutional reform, and counterrevolution, which ended in the violent attempt to bring down the republic in July 1295 by the massed magnati that was quickly put down by the guildsmen
Johnston, 'Traders and Playmakers: English Guildsmen
and the Low Countries', Caroline Barron and Nigel Saul (eds), England and the Low Countries in the Late Middle Ages (Stroud, 1995), 99-114.
Ambivalence rather than hard and fast rules characterized the way guildsmen
in Augsburg acted, and there was little uniformity in the way executioners and skinners were handled from city to city.
Most of Arnade's book focuses on Ghent between 1440 and 1540 because this towns patricians and guildsmen
led the charge - ultimately without success - contesting the encroachment of the Burgundian state.
As Dr Tyerman has shown, prayers were often said by guildsmen
in England for the Holy Land.