Another study of underwater phases (Sanders, 2004) showed that expert swimmers maximize propulsion and minimize resistance notably by adopting a streamlined position and selecting appropriate glide times
and underwater propulsion times before commencing free stroking.
The priority meaning for the quality of the turn technique is the optimum extension of duration of wall contact, the push-off time and glide time. In the context of interdependencies between the turn time and the total turn time (r = -0.64), the fact that extending the time-out reduces the total turn time (r = -0.75) explains the need for extending the activities performed from the moment of feet wall contact until finishing the glide in time.
The glide phase is described by three parameters: glide time, glide distance and glide angle (Figure 4).
With the remaining 26 pairs, we found a statistically significant difference between the prop-stopped and prop-windmill-ing glide times
. Assuming that the true mean difference is really zero (playing devil's advocate in the statistics world) we found the probability of witnessing a difference as large as we did due to chance alone would be less than 0.0000052.
(2005; 2007), the effective propulsion times of the elite groups were longer and their effective glide times
shorter than non-elite swimmers.