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1. A means of production in which different parts of the supply chain are located in different countries. Fragmentation occurs to reduce costs of production. For example, the least expensive materials may be in India and the cheapest factory workers in China, while the target retail customer is in the United States or Canada. Fragmentation can occur most easily when there is free trade, or at least low tariffs between all the countries on the supply chain. See also: Globalization.

2. A situation in a decentralized market. This often renders investors unaware of the best price available for their trades, resulting in inefficiency in the market. Fragmentation has become less of a problem with the advent of electronic exchanges and other, similar products.
Farlex Financial Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All Rights Reserved


The lack of full interconnection of the various securities markets. Fragmentation can result in customer orders being sent to markets that do not offer the best available price. Critics claim the inefficiencies of fragmentation can be cured with a central order book that includes orders from all markets.
Wall Street Words: An A to Z Guide to Investment Terms for Today's Investor by David L. Scott. Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
While the impact of server fragmentation gets significantly greater as the disk becomes more fragmented, even the common lower levels of fragmentation will have a large impact on user response time when you consider that hundreds of users may be accessing the data store at the same time.
With our heavily fragmented test environment showing a greater than 50 percent performance improvement after defragmentation it's clear that this test was extremely sensitive to higher levels of fragmentation on the server.
As has been seen with the Exchange tests, a highly fragmented database structure can have a severe negative impact on loading and extracting data from server applications, with our test showing a performance improvement of 40 percent in the most heavily fragmented environment.
SQL Server 2008 does a very good job of managing its databases, but defragmentation shows appreciable improvement in the performance of tasks such as this with a performance improvement of over 11 percent in the most fragmented environments.
The tests depict the effects of manipulating the data on a fragmented drive with peak performance improvements of approximately 18 percent.
One new method is to bypass the Windows NT 0/S and the special APIs in order to defragment the MFT online (Microsoft technical authorities consider this approach dangerous), Alternatives include offline defragmentation during rebooting (less convenient, but safe) and the latest approach of Diskeeper 5.0--preventing the MFT from becoming fragmented in the first place.
When the defragmentation software is first installed on a machine, it is quickly defragmented at boot time if the MFT is fragmented. From that point on, an online monitoring process ensures that the MFT does not again become fragmented, thus eliminating the need to defragment it.
Tropical forest remnants: ecology, management, and conservation of fragmented communities.
Insects in fragmented forests: a functional approach.
Predicting the impacts of edge effects in fragmented habitats.