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1. A means of production in which different parts of the supply chain are located in different countries. Fragmentation occurs to reduce costs of production. For example, the least expensive materials may be in India and the cheapest factory workers in China, while the target retail customer is in the United States or Canada. Fragmentation can occur most easily when there is free trade, or at least low tariffs between all the countries on the supply chain. See also: Globalization.

2. A situation in a decentralized market. This often renders investors unaware of the best price available for their trades, resulting in inefficiency in the market. Fragmentation has become less of a problem with the advent of electronic exchanges and other, similar products.


The lack of full interconnection of the various securities markets. Fragmentation can result in customer orders being sent to markets that do not offer the best available price. Critics claim the inefficiencies of fragmentation can be cured with a central order book that includes orders from all markets.
References in periodicals archive ?
A theology of mission in the context of fragmentation begins with a courageous act of self-criticism and the call for repentance.
Fragmentation and recombination of the social sciences.
Certification for specializations, such as Certified Insurance Rehabilitation Specialists (CIRS), Certified Vocational Evaluator (CVE), and Certified Work Adjustment Specialist (CWA), and so on, although important, may result in professional fragmentation for the Certified Rehabilitation Counselor (CRC), if persons are allowed to drift into rehabilitation counseling simply because they have a certification in a specialization.
The goal of horizontal fragmentation is to obtain smaller fragment to maximize the local processing of queries, then the fragments are stored to the sites where they are used.
fragmentation of euro area financial markets based on measures of
The first-stage post-processing analysis makes use of the forest fragmentation map in GIS in conjunction with forest fragmentation component variables leading to support the second-stage state enterprise area ranking analysis based on MCDM methods.
Since its launch in 2008, the FFI has allowed users to track and compare fragmentation between established market centres and the new alternative execution venues in Europe.
To explain the apparent spatial reorganization of production systems in developed economies, Jones and Kierzkowski (1990, 2005) have proposed an alternative to the new economic geography Their notion of fragmentation highlights how production processes are being split into subsequent phases that are undertaken separately and in different locations As a result, we observe an increase in the intra-industry trade of intermediate products, with both an interregional and international character Production systems in developed areas may thus be losing internal linkages but becoming more dependent on the rest of the world.
After oil shale particles are plunged into a fluidized bed (FB), severe primary fragmentation and secondary fragmentation will occur, which have great effect on bed materials' concentration and particle size distribution referring to combustion ratio, heat transfer in furnace, distribution of heat load, etc.
Problems in delivering services to users however are difficult to directly trace to server fragmentation issues.
SAN FRANCISCO -- Treatment with paroxetine (Paxil) appears to put healthy men at greater risk of sperm DNA fragmentation, according to data from a small study presented at the annual meeting of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.