HTM [V.sub.oc] (V) [(n-BuO).sub.4]ZnPc Forward bias
0.896 [+ or -] 0.009 Reverse bias 0.928 [+ or -] 0.04 Spiro-OMeTAD Forward bias
0.903 [+ or -] 0.02 Reverse bias 0.928 [+ or -] 0.04 HTM [J.sub.sc] (mA/[cm.sup.2]) [(n-BuO).sub.4]ZnPc Forward bias
12.1 [+ or -] 1.2 Reverse bias 14.5 [+ or -] 1.9 Spiro-OMeTAD Forward bias
13.6 [+ or -] 0.9 Reverse bias 14.5 [+ or -] 1.9 HTM FF (%) [(n-BuO).sub.4]ZnPc Forward bias
57.0 [+ or -] 3.1 Reverse bias 61.8 [+ or -] 2.6 Spiro-OMeTAD Forward bias
55.2 [+ or -] 4.0 Reverse bias 61.8 [+ or -] 2.6 HTM PCE (%) [(n-BuO).sub.4]ZnPc Forward bias
6.06% [+ or -] 0.74 Reverse bias 9.00% [+ or -] 0.21 Spiro-OMeTAD Forward bias
6.75% [+ or -] 0.19 Reverse bias 8.61% [+ or -] 0.60 Table 4: Calculated synthesis cost for 1 g of [(n-BuO).sub.4]ZnPc.
When the forward bias
voltages are 0, 1.5, 1.8, 2 V, respectively, the transmission spectrum of the micro-nano SOI micro-ring electro-optic modulation has been tested, as shown in Figure 11.
Thus, the frictional force can be controlled through the use of laser processing under a forward bias
Our experimental results showed that charge transport in these compounds take place via different mechanism in reverse and forward bias
The rectification ratio--the rate of current density under forward bias
to reverse bias--of these samples were calculated as 9.4 for sample 2, 4.5 for sample 3, 5.2 for sample 4 and 4.9 for sample 5.
As shown in this figure, the intrinsic PN diode in forward bias
improves the current of the diode as compared to conventional diode in Figure 1(c), in which the PN diode is reverse biased in the forward region.
[23.] Ranaldo, Angelo and Sarkar, Asani (2008) Exchange rate risk, transactions costs and the forward bias
puzzle, Swiss National Bank, [http://www.hkimr.org/uploads/conference_detail/521/con_paper_0_510_session-7-3_sarkarranaldo_1sep08.
It requires 1.2 V to operate in forward bias
state, while above 10 V to operate in reverse bias state at 10 GHz.
The diode is simulated using the actual diode current-voltage equation for forward bias
, while using a circuit model consisting of resistor and capacitor in parallel for reversed bias in the presence of both axial and skewed FSS grids, which provides more accurate simulation results compared to simulating the diode as an open circuit (OC) for the OFF state and a short circuit (SC) for the ON state .
The reverse saturation current ([I.sub.0]) can be obtained by extrapolating the linear portion of the forward bias
in the ln I-V plot to the intercept point on the current axis at zero-bias (V = 0) and is given by
No [F.sub.r] peaks appear in forward bias
. The [I.sub.d]-[V.sub.d] curve is measured experimentally (Fig.