While it is clear from these two cases that each force majeure
provision, whether it appears in legislation or a contract, must be read on its own terms as drafted and all the circumstances constituting the event carefully considered, four observations can be made with respect to the approach of British courts to the interpretation and application of force majeure
It should be made clear in both purchase and sale agreements and tolling agreements whether either (1) the withdrawal of an authorization due to government action or (2) the revocation of an authorization due to the actions of another customer or buyer in the same facility constitutes an event of Force Majeure
Without the incorporation of the specific cause within a force majeure
clause, it is an open question as to whether a catch-all force majeure
provision would cover a given situation.
However, force majeure
is of little effect where the contract is already performed and the goods have been sold.
But in explaining his ruling, Canova noted that Blethen himself, in a letter to Hearst, wrote that the force majeure
relieved the Times -- which runs all business, production and circulation operations for both papers -- of any obligation to publish the P-I during the strike.
Airline labour agreements contain force majeure
clauses that give carriers the flexibility to lay off workers without adhering to strict seniority provisions during unexpected crises.
The sufficiency of a contract's force majeure
clause has received renewed interest in light of recent events.
Two issues deserve consideration for most franchisors: the force majeure
clause and the arbitration clause.
The shutdown forced Occidental Petroleum, which owns 35% of the line and operates the 120,000 b/d Cano Limon oil field, to declare force majeure
on oil exports.
Typically a provision of this nature is known as a force majeure
If Naked Hollywood is a breezy guidebook for the uninitiated, then Bruce Wagner's novel Force Majeure
is the fictional equivalent of a confidential psychiatric report.