The macrophage foam cell
as a target for therapeutic intervention.
Vitamin D suppressed foam cell
formation by reducing LDL cholesterol uptake in diabetic subjects only.
Scavenger receptors mediate the uptake of modified lipoprotein particles and promote the development of foam cells
. Macrophage foam cells
are a source of mediators, including other cytokines and effector molecules, such as hypochlorus acid, superoxide anion, and matrix metalloproteinases.
Macrophages play a key role in atherogenesis by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and forming foam cells
in subendothelial lesions.
Lipid droplet formation induced by a snake venom GIIA [sPLA.sub.2] in macrophages depends on lipid metabolism factors mainly PPAR-[gamma] and PPAR-ft/8, providing new insights into mechanisms of macrophage foam cell
However, uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages causes intracellular accumulation of cholesterol and precipitates their transformation to foam cells
. Foam cells
produce several proteinases, which degrade extracellular matrices, thereby increasing the fragility of plaques .
In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether combination therapy with SGLT2i and DPP-4i was superior to monotherapy with either an inhibitor alone in suppressing macrophage foam cell
formation, a critical process in atherosclerosis, or the expression of genes involved in foam cell
formation in db/db mice, a model of type 2 diabetes.
Punicalagin protects macrophage cells from lipid accumulation and foam cell
This material forms a uniform foam cell
size where at least 90% of the foam cells
are 50 micrometers or less.
As anticipated, airflow, foam cell
structure and surface appearance, hardness, ball rebound and compression sets were all identical to those seen with the conventional surfactants in Formulation A.
It has been reported that oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) involvement with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and foam cell
formation play an important role in atherosclerosis (AS).
Chiamydial endotoxins, much less virulent than those of enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Escherichia coli), can promote macrophage foam cell
formation in vitro (8,39).