floating exchange rate system

Floating exchange rate system

Purchase or sale of the currencies of other nations by a central bank for the purpose of influencing foreign exchange rates or maintaining orderly foreign exchange markets. Also called foreign-exchange market intervention.

Floating Exchange Rate System

The practice in which a central bank buys and sells one or more foreign currencies in order to affect the exchange rate of its own currency. To give a very simple example, if a central bank believes its own currency is overvalued, it may buy other currencies on the open market to increase demand and therefore the price of these currencies. The extra demand will likely drive down the exchange rate of its own currency to a lower level.

floating exchange rate system

a mechanism for coordinating EXCHANGE RATES between countries' currencies which involves the value of each country's currency in terms of other currencies being determined by the forces of supply and demand in the FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET (see EQUILIBRIUM MARKET PRICE). Over time the exchange rate of a particular currency may rise (appreciate) or fall (depreciate) depending, respectively, on the strength or weakness of its underlying BALANCE OF PAYMENTS position and exposure to SPECULATIVE activity See APPRECIATION, definition 2, DEPRECIATION, definition 2.

Generally speaking, the business and financial community dislikes unregulated floating exchange rates since the market tends to produce erratic and destabilizing exchange rate movements, often prompted by currency speculation, which makes it difficult to conclude meaningful trade and investment transactions, because of the uncertainties surrounding the profit-and-loss implications of such deals when exchange rates are fluctuating widely. Governments too dislike disorderly currency markets and prefer where possible to ‘manage’ their exchange rates both to moderate the excessive short-term fluctuations and to smooth out the underlying longer-term trend line by buying and selling currencies as appropriate out of their foreign exchange equalization account. While this creates a more settled and controlled environment in which to operate, nonetheless firms are usually forced to cover their currency deals in the forward exchange market.

Government intervention in currency markets sometimes goes beyond merely smoothing its exchange rate and may involve a deliberate attempt to manipulate the exchange rate so as to gain a trading advantage over other countries (a so-called dirty float). See FORWARD MARKET, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, ECONOMIC POLICY, CENTRAL BANK, GROUP OF 7 (G7), PURCHASING POWER PARITY, EXCHANGE RATE EXPOSURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
The currency dropped by 50% against the dollar after the authorities announced shifting to a floating exchange rate system, which pushed up the cost of imported goods.
From a different approach, among the models of exchange rate determination, the monetary approach has been used to explain volatility occurring after implementation of the floating exchange rate system in 1973 (Wilson, Journal of Business Inquiry, 2009).
After the Azerbaijan decided to pass the floating exchange rate system, manat, the national currency of Azerbaijan is continuing the depreciation.
China's cabinet will maintain a floating exchange rate system and will realise yuan convertibility on the capital account in an orderly way, the statement also said.
The Central Bank of Iran has, over the past decade, implemented a managed floating exchange rate system by which the rate was fixed through the injection of foreign exchange revenue, mostly generated from oil; however, during the last 18 months the weakening of the Rial has accelerated and in October the acceleration rate increased dramatically.
Thus, with a view to maintaining the competitiveness of exports and thereby to bring a sustainable balance between the country's current receipts and current payments, it was decided to adopt the managed floating exchange rate system with effect from 8th January 1982.
In the foreign exchange sector, with the reforms in the early 1990's India has shifted to the floating exchange rate system from the previous fixed rate system.
ANKARA, Oct 25, 2010 (TUR) -- Turkish Deputy Prime Minister and State Minister for the economy Ali Babacan stuck up for the free floating exchange rate system in Turkey and said credibility of Turkish lira was growing in the world parallel to confidence shown in Turkish economy.
China, which has not joined the floating exchange rate system, causes the highest trade deficit on the planet: 159 million euro in 2007 for Europe.
Under a floating exchange rate system, the relative demand for the two countries' goods and assets would determine the exchange rate of the yuan to the dollar.
The release of the ACU can be seen as an initial step toward the integration of Asian currencies just as the European currency unit, a similar floating exchange rate system adopted in 1979 at the start of the European Monetary System, was replaced with the euro in 1999, it said.
This summer, Beijing introduced the floating exchange rate system and virtually revalued the yuan as part of preparations for Hu's visit to the United States.