In the context of clinical applications, mesenchymal stem cells originated from human adult fat depots
, known as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), are of great importance, because of their high accessibility with minimal invasiveness and no ethical limitations.
As a consequence, light animals having low fat depot
experience a more severe negative energy balance, which is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disorders and milk fat syndrome in early lactation period (Goff and Horst, 1997).
This allowed determination of a fat depot
laying in the lower hind leg which we named paratibial fat depot
(PFD) and of which we showed previously that it is large in ovx and much smaller in intact or ovx-E2 treated animals (Seidlova-Wuttke et al.
In order to validate the performance of the sternal fat depot
as a fatness index, the test group of wolverines (N = 23 including 14 males and nine females), for which fatness was known from total body fat extraction, was used to compare fatness predicted by the regressions developed with the first group with known fatness (Fig.
16 Computer-assisted tomography allows determination of the size of a paratibial fat depot
which is large after 3 months of ovariectomy and significantly smaller prior to ovx and in E2- or AC-treated animals.
Finally, the comparison between EAT and other kinds of fat depots
, not performed in this study, could be helpful to reinforce our data on the role of RAGE in linking EAT metabolic dysfunction and CAD.
The trends for accumulation of fat depots
were increasing with increasing amount of concentrate in the diet.
Multiple authors have suggested that IMAT, an ectopic fat depot
similar to visceral adipose tissue, may release a host of proinflammatory cytokines resulting in local inflammation within the muscle [10,26,48,65,71].
One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Dunnett's post hoc test was used to determine significant differences in measured outcomes among fat depot
weight, adipocyte size, adipocyte number, and body weights from different exposure groups.
Specifically in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases, perivascular adipose tissue might play an important role because almost all blood vessels are surrounded by this fat depot
, and due to the fact that perivascular adipocytes are not separated from the blood vessel wall by an anatomic barrier, the secretion of adipokines by this fat depot
may provide a new link between obesity and vascular complications .
The two subsequent generations (F2 and F3) also showed increases in fat cell size and number and, at the two higher TBT doses, in fat depot
Similar to mouse models, increased macrophage accumulation has been demonstrated in the adipose tissue of obese humans and those with type 2 diabetes, with significantly more macrophages residing in visceral omental fat depot
compared to subcutaneous inguinal depot in these subjects [5,6].