For verification of the proposed solution, the

factor of safety predicted by the proposed limit analysis was compared with the results obtained by using different computational approaches.

Intentionally designing to a

factor of safety much greater than 1 indirectly admits the fault in the deterministic approach while bypassing more meaningful and less arbitrary alternatives.

In term of deterministic analysis, a slope is likely to fail if the

factor of safety is equal or less than one (FS [less than or equal to] 1).

We can notice from the design that the

factor of safety considered for the design is too large which results in the wastage of the material and also increases its cost.

1) through (7), the time-dependent magnitude of

factor of safety for the two scenarios immediately and long-term after earthquake occurrence is computed and presented in Figure 1.

Choose an appropriate

factor of safety for the tests.

In addition, according to the example slope model, five-group factors of safety with different c and tan f values under the same coefficient of variation are given in Table 5 to further investigate the variation characteristics of the probability of failure with the

factor of safety under different copulas.

No specic value of

factor of safety is recommended as safe, however, for soil having

factor of safety less than 1 are highly susceptible to liquefaction and susceptibility for liquefaction varies inversely with

factor of safety.

The estimation of the

factor of safety was applied for each design.

The current version of the simplified procedure calculates the

factor of safety FS against liquefaction of a level ground in terms of the cyclic stress ratio CSR (the demand), and the cyclic resistance ratio CRR (the capacity) according to:

For purposes of analysis, Rudakov and Pursell decided that 500 million cycles--a dozen or more years worth of heartbeats--was an infinite life in determining the

factor of safety against fatigue failure.

Document identifier: KIT 206 Descriptors: Buildings, Structural design, Structural systems, Concretes, Structures, Design, Reinforced concrete, Prestressed concrete,

Factor of safety, Durability, Design calculations, Prestressing steels, Structural members, Fire resistance, Construction materials, Safety measures, Approval testing, Serviceability limits, Tendons, Reinforcement, Lightweight aggregates, Aggregates ISBN: 978 0 580 50985 8 Material number: 30232841