with no social benefit, through externalization
of losses onto the
By using SECI model as lenses in analyzing the Serikin-market circumstances, it is found that the socialization, externalization
, combination and internalization process as engine to create new knowledge is very low.
The validity of the broadband internalizing and externalizing factors may be clinically important in psychodiagnostics where the division between internalization and externalization
becomes an increasingly important concept.
exposes SYTEFs to considerable moral hazards because the behavior of partners is often unobservable so the costs of opportunism are potentially high (Williamson, 1985).
Table 1: Questions related to component of knowledge management Main component of Questions Number knowledge management Externalization
1-2-3-4-5 5 Combination 6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16 11 Internalization 17-18-19-20 4 Socialization 21-22-23-24-25-26 6 Sum 26 Table 2: final results of knowledge management questionnaire Questionnaire Indicators Number Cronbach's alpha Externalization
5 0.810 Combination 11 0.683 Internalization 4 0.72 Socialization 6 0.839 Table 3: Spearmen correlation matrix between knowledge management role and empower staffs Variable name Empower knowledge management Empower 1.000 knowledge management ** 831.000 1.000 Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
The analysis of Lessons Learned systems and After Action Reviews will illustrate the military approaches to knowledge externalization
. Producing doctrines in the process of operational standardization will be presented as a solution used by the military to combine knowledge in order to codify it.
Number of descriptors used in each category and % of the total Category Number of different % of total descriptors Independence 21 18.42 Relatedness 18 15.78 Positive temperament 18 15.78 Negative temperament 11 7.00 Introversion 5 4.38 Externalization
22 19.30 Others 19 16.67 Table 2.
Among the 114 boys referred for externalization
problems, 95 (83.3%) reached the level of clinical problems at the conduct problems scale (above two points, according to the British and the Hungarian standards) in the parent version of the SDQ (5.0 [+ or -] 0.2, mean[+ or -] SEM), while similar measure in the self-report version of the SDQ was found in 63 adolescents (55.3%, above three points; 3.9 [+ or -] 0.2, mean [+ or -] SEM).
With IT budgetary constraints increasing every year and the expansion of externalization
, one or two large companies will be forced to make the leap.
that is a purely individual process, combination is a social process based on the communicable property of explicit knowledge.
To explore knowledge distribution, our study adopts two key processes through which tacit and explicit knowledge interact, namely, externalization
and combination (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995).
In the current study, the SALS learning model included four phases: Externalization
, Reflection, Construction, and Application.