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the force or process which impels people to behave in the way that they do. In a work setting, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. In OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY two basic conceptions of motivation can be discerned: ‘needs’ theory and ‘expectancy’ theory Possibly the best known of the former is the ‘hierarchy of needs’ identified by Abraham Maslow (1908-70). He argued that individuals have intrinsic needs which they are impelled to seek to satisfy. These needs, which are ordered in a hierarchy are physical needs (food, warmth, shelter), security needs (safety, home), ego needs (esteem, status) and self-actualization needs (the realization of individual potential). Initially, the lower order needs such as safety determine behaviour but once these are satisfied higher order needs come to dominate. Maslow's theory has been widely criticized, however, for assuming that such needs are universal and that they are always ordered in this particular hierarchy.

Other needs theories include Herzberg's ‘Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. He argued that people are motivated by two kinds of need: hygiene factors (those basic needs such as shelter which, if not satisfied, lead to unhappiness but whose satisfaction does not in itself lead to happiness); and motivators (those higher order needs which when satisfied lead to contentment). The importance of this theory in a work setting is its insistence that managers have to ensure that both hygiene factors (i.e. pay, working conditions) and motivation (i.e. the need for personal fulfilment) are satisfied for a workforce to be content and highly motivated.

A further ‘needs’ theory is the ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of Clayton Alderfer (1940 -). Like Maslow he suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs but that the less a high level need is satisfied the more important a lower level need becomes. Hence demands for more pay in fact really reflect a desire for work to be made more satisfying.

The main alternative approach to ‘needs’ theories is the ‘expectancy’ approach associated with Victor Vroom (1932 -). This suggests that individuals are motivated to act in certain ways not by some basic inner need but by the strength of the expectation that the action will achieve a result seen by them as desirable. The desire for a particular outcome is known as the ‘valence’. This theory is essentially a ‘process’ theory: it emphasizes the process of motivation rather than the nature or content of particular motivators. The strength of people's motivation will be determined by weighing up how much they want something and how far they believe a certain action will contribute to achieving it.

References in periodicals archive ?
First, the Biltmore teacher used external motivation to initially encourage students to participate and enhance interest in the CDE content.
Table 2: The relationship between external motivation and utilization of HIV services Utilization of HIV/AIDS services Yes Never Total External motivation n % n % n % Strong 19 38 6 12 25 50 Weak 7 14 18 36 25 50 Total 26 52 24 48 50 100 Spearmen rho, p = 0.
While external motivation orients towards awards, internal motivation orients to take on a task in the activity directed towards aims (Good and Brophy, 1994).
Plant and Devine (1998) developed the Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice toward African Americans Scale (IMS/EMS).
Items with low internal consistency scores were deleted to give a final total of 19 internal and 5 external motivation items.
Their results revealed both an external motivation factor and a mixed internalized motivation factor regarding motivation for receiving substance abuse treatment.
Political forces, often with ulterior, external motivation, foment unrest for their own political gain, irrespective of the social damage such antagonism wreaks.
AMS = Academic Motivation Scale; CMNI = Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory; IMTK = Internal Motivation To Know; IMTA = Intrinsic Motivation To Accomplish; IMTES = Intrinsic Motivation To Experience Stimulation; EMIN = External Motivation Introjected; EMER = Ex trinsic Motivation External; EMID = External Motivation Identified; M= Mean; SD = Standard Deviation.
Openness encourages us to stay on the straight-and-narrow, an external motivation to continue to do the right thing even if at times it has a negative appearance.
The above 5-point bipolar scale was again adopted: -2 = external motivation (e.
Finally, the group members decided that meetings should be held once a week to provide some external motivation for accomplishing goals and adhering to timelines.
They also suggested that greater introjected motivation may actually be preferable to external motivation for this population.