Understanding the mechanism of action of the exfoliative toxins
of Staphylococcus aureus.
This study deals with development of a rapid, reliable and low-cost polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based protocol for the detection of most known SE genes, the TSST-1 gene, exfoliative toxins
, and egc in Staphylococcus spp.
Dissemination of the gene encoding exfoliative toxin
of Staphylococcus intermedius among strains isolated from dogs during routine microbiological diagnostics.J.
Complete nucleotide sequence of Staphylococcus aureus exfoliative toxin
B plasmid and identification of a novel ADP-ribosyltransferase, EDIN-C.
Mutational analysis of the superantigen staphylococcal exfoliative toxin
hyicus are exotoxins, such as enterotoxins and exfoliative toxins
. Six exfoliative toxins
, able to induce exudative epidermitis in piglets, have been isolated from certain strains of S.
(%) of isolates positive for production of other toxins ETA 0 ETB 0 TSST-1 1 (3.1) SEA 0 SEB 32 (100) SEC 0 SED 0 SEE 0 SEG/SEI 0 SEH 0 * PVL, Panton-Valentine leukocidin; ETA, exfoliative toxin
A; ETB, exfoliative toxin
B; TSST-1, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1; SEA, staphylococcal enterotoxin A; SEB, staphylococcal enterotoxin B; SEC, staphylococcal enterotoxin C; SED, staphylococcal enterotoxin D; SEE, staphylococcal enterotoxin E; SEG, staphylococcal enterotoxin G; SEI, staphylococcal enterotoxin I; SEH, staphylococcal enterotoxin H.
PCR was used to detect the exfoliative toxin
genes eta and etb as previously described (16).
On the other hand, bullous impetigo is caused by the local production of exfoliative toxins
(ETA or ETB) by phage group II of Staphylococcus aureus.
Life-threatening staphylococcal infections are generally caused by the co-presence and combined actions of staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea-sej), toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (tst-1), exfoliative toxins
(eta and etb) and the panton-valentine leucocidin.
A and B) cause intraepidermal separation in the stratum granulosum and lead to a condition that is characterized by widespread epidermolysis all over the body and bullae with a positive Nikolsky's sign.
Detection of genes for enterotoxins, exfoliative toxins
, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in Staphylococcus aureus by the polymerase chain reaction.