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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

References in periodicals archive ?
Supervised structured aerobic exercise training (SSAET) programme, routine medication, and dietary plan were interventions in the experimental group, while patients in the control group were treated by routine medication and dietary plan for 25 weeks at 3 days per week.
The 12-week aerobic exercise training was applied to those participants who passed the GXT.
Effect of endurance exercise training on heart rate variability at rest in healthy young and older men.
The present study demonstrated that an 8-week low-to-moderate intensity, supervised aerobic exercise training program, 3 times a week, is effective.
This prospective clinical trial demonstrates that upper and lower extremity exercise training improves work performance, increases exercise tolerance, and ameliorates dyspnea in several dimensions, while enhancing health related quality-of-life when medical delivery has been optimized.
We found that the 12-week aerobic exercise training program improved metabolic factors, such as BMI, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic arterial pressure in sedentary type 2 diabetic group.
Torjman (1999) found that serum Leptin concentrations after 60 minutes treadmill exercise at 50% maximum oxygen consumption in 6 healthy men did not changed and exercise training has no effect on Leptin concentrations.
Thirty, eight week-old female Wistar rats (186 [+ or -] 12 g) were randomly assigned to two groups of healthy (n = 12) and diabetic (n = 18) induced by streptozocin injection, then healthy group were divided into two group of H1 and H2 as healthy control and diabetic group were split up into three groups of D1, D2 as diabetic control and Exe as a exercise training group.
Exercise training alone in the absence of weight loss had no effect on insulin sensitivity in the 52-week-long clinical trial.
HOUSTON--Diet-induced weight loss with or without an accompanying exercise training program improved insulin sensitivity and other key cardiometabolic risk factors in an obese elderly population, a randomized trial showed.

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