However, studies in the literature have not proven whether this condition represents the visible part of a more distant disorder of brain development or an epileptogenic focus
(2, 5, 8-12).
The localisation of epileptogenic focus
can be made by clinical symptoms, electroencephalography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, SPECT and PET studies.
Carrette et al., "Functional brain connectivity from EEG in epilepsy: seizure prediction and epileptogenic focus
localization," Progress in Neurobiology, vol.
The third stage is the epileptogenic focus
where the patient is operated on by a team of specialist surgeons, he said.
Because the mechanism of VNS therapy is different from pharmacotherapy and traditional surgery, and it can be used to reduce seizure burden by stimulating the vagus nerve instead of localizing the epileptogenic focus
. Moreover, it has been found that VNS improves attention, cognition, behavior, mood, and quality of life (QOL) besides of reducing seizure burden.[sup],,,, Therefore, VNS therapy provides an alternative method for patients with PRE, especially for those with multifocal or unlocalized epileptogenic foci.
(17) For example, it has been found that in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with left lateralization of epileptogenic focus
(LEFl), there are more pronounced alterations in terms of verbal memory and language, while in TLE with right lateralization of epileptogenic focus
(LEFr), more pronounced disorders in visuo-perceptive functions and visuo-spatial memory can be expected.
With a new-onset seizure, the imaging priority should be focused on ruling out an acute process, rather than visualizing a subtle epileptogenic focus
. For example, venous infarction related to dural venous sinus thrombosis may be the suspected underlying cause of a new-onset seizure in the pediatric population; thus, an MR or CT venogram should be performed.
A quantitative analysis of spiking in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy by Lieb et al  has revealed that the epileptogenic focus
(the region of the brain that triggers a seizure) generates spikes at maximum mean spiking rate and minimum coefficient of variation, and minimum variance in inter-spike intervals.
Endovascular ablation of a temporal lobe epileptogenic focus
: A complication of Wada testing.