During caudal epidural block
, inserting a needle into the sacral hiatus is essential to access the sacral canal.
Although we have enumerated certain factors that appear to influence EVE, there could be other factors not previously investigated that affect characteristics of subarachnoid or epidural blocks
. Although controversial, there is some evidence for an influence of patient height on intrathecal drug spread31.
 Many studies have characterised the effects of tramadol as an adjuvant to local anaesthetics in brachial plexus block, [14,15,16] caudal epidural block
[17,18] and also in DPNB.
Variables Values Gender Male 173 (42.5%) Female 234 (57.5%) Age 52.00 (14.15) Height 164.32 (8.32) Weight 65.65 (10.62) BMI 24.21 (2.55) Type of HIVD Protrusion 167 (41.0%) Extrusion 175 (43.0%) Sequestration 45 (11.1%) Foraminal 20 (4.9%) Concurrent oral analgesics Yes 400 (98.3%) No 7 (1.7%) Concurrent physical therapy Yes 190 (46.7%) No 217 (53.3%) Previous epidural block
Yes 142 (34.9%) No 265 (65.1%) Previous blocks other Yes 16 (3.9%) than epidural No 391 (96.1%) Single 254 (62.4%) Number oflevels Two 126 (31.0%) Three 27 (6.6%) Left 190 (46.7%) Location of lesion Right 182 (44.7%) Both 35 (8.6%) HIZ at MRI Present 158 (38.8%) Negative 249 (61.2%) Baseline NRS score 7.595 (0.93) The values are presented as a mean (SD) or absolute number (percentage).
In our study, the incidence of intraoperative maternal hypotension after epidural block
in the second trimester is 53.8%.
If the results of the cadaver studies on elderly subjects also apply to healthy parturients, then it is feasible that such an event could happen accidentally during the attempted performance of epidural block
. Accidental intradural catheter placement has until now only been a hypothesis and there are already some who dispute this concept (8,9).
Lumbar epidural block
in labor: A clinical analysis.
The area under the curve of the finger photoplethysmography showed a statistically significant increase 25 minutes after the administration of 0.5% bupivacaine epidural block
compared to the baseline value, which we attributed to the effect of the sympathetic block.
 preferred the same segment ([L.sub.3-4]) for spinal and epidural block
in their CSE group.
Similarly, Suzuki et al (2) demonstrated that an epidural block
with mepivacaine did not influence the time to T1 recovery but delayed both spontaneous and neostigmine-facilitated recovery of the TOF ratio from vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block.
with the catheter technique gives a better control of the level of analgesia and can be used for providing post-operative pain relief by opioids or local anaesthetic agents.