Chapter 5: Tightening the screws in West African arms embargoes
Chapter 7: UN arms embargoes in the Great Lakes, 1994-2004
Chapter 8: Arms embargoes against Eritrea and Ethiopia
Chapter 9: A quantitative analysis of arms embargoes
Chapter 10: Putting teeth in the tiger: Policy conclusions for effective arms embargoes
In the final chapter, the authors recognize that the main effects of arms embargoes "are to change arms supplies and war-fighting patterns, but [that they] very seldom have the desired political effects of ending wars or changing a target's policies.
The seminar initiated a process to determine practical suggestions for the improvement of future UN arms embargoes and travel sanctions.
Member states, not the UN, are responsible for implementing embargoes and deciding which goods are covered by the embargoes.
More recently, the UN Security Council identified improving the implementation of arms embargoes as a top priority in a report released last September.
1) Arms embargoes have been imposed by the UN on UNITA (in Angola), Iraq, Haiti, Liberia, Libya, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Rwanda, and Yugoslavia.
2) The other working group chairs include Ambassador Hans Dahlgren of Sweden (Improving Travel Sanctions), Ambassador Tono Eitel of Germany (Improving the Effectiveness of Arms Embargoes `On the Ground'), and Ambassador Antonio Moneiro Of Portugal (Monitoring and Reporting of UN Arms Embargoes).