Elsen PR Monahan WB Merelender AM Global patterns of protection of elevational
gradients in mountain ranges P Natl Acad Sci USA 2018 115236004910.1073/pnas.172014111529784825
We evaluated changes in fish assemblage structure along the elevational
gradient using rank-abundance curves, in which the abundance is plotted against the total number of species.
(2012) From lowlands to highlands: searching for elevational
patterns of species richness and distribution of scarab beetles in Costa Rica.
There are two ways to quantify elevational
patterns in species richness: alpha and gamma diversity studies (McCain, 2005).
The study was conducted in areas of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivation at seven locations along an elevational
gradient: Lomanis, Cilacap Regency (7[degrees]41'06 32"N, 109[degrees]01'12 24"E, 8 m above sea level (asl)), Gunung Tugel, Purwokerto (7[degrees]28'03 92"N, 109[degrees]14'06 35"E, 106 m asl), Banteran, Sikapat, and Banyumas Regency (7[degrees]20'00 43"N, 109[degrees]16'29 49"N, 224, and 442 m asl, resp.), Limpakuwus and Tuwel, Tegal Regency (7[degrees]09'46 38"N, 109[degrees]09'06 66"E, 664 and 887 m asl), and Serang, Pubalingga Regency (7[degrees]14'48 41"E, 109[degrees]17'28 91"N, 1077 m asl).
clines represent a "natural laboratory" within which we can better understand how such traits fluctuate in response to growing conditions.
The patterns and causes of elevational
To estimate elevational
variation, a matrix of 18 elevation categories by six sites was built from digital elevation models (scale 1:50,000; INEGI, 2003, http://mapserver.inegi.org.mx/ DescargaMDEWeb).
But TAP languages easily beat most central New Guinea languages in elevational
complexity: they distinguish three heights (above, below, and level, with respect to deictic center), enriched in some languages with sub distinctions of height related to distance (Abui), steepness of slope (Kamang, Western Pantar), and directionality with respect to the slope (traversing slope or following it) (Introduction, p.
My permits allowed me to collect five specimens of each species--essentially, one specimen from each of five elevational
The second part discusses an assortment of topics, including symbiogenesis, cognitive ecology, genetic draft, genomic conflict, avian evolutionary genomics, elevational
gradients, cytonuclear genomic interactions, molecular phylogenetics of Australian flora, introgression of crop alleles, facilitation, assisted gene flow, the genus Spartina, diversification on islands, mate choice, thermal ecology, diversity and competition, ecosystem collapse in the face of climate change, conservation biology, forest lepidoptera, biomass distribution of forests, and symbiont transmission.