First and always in considering any piece of literature a student should ask himself the question already implied: Does it present a true portrayal of life--of the permanent elements in all life and in human nature, of the life or thought of its own particular period, and (in most sorts of books) of the persons, real or imaginary, with whom it deals?
Related to Emotion also and one of the most necessary elements in the higher forms of literature is Imagination, the faculty of making what is absent or unreal seem present and real, and revealing the hidden or more subtile forces of life.
In both cases, the sterility occurs in various degrees; in both, the male element is the most liable to be affected; but sometimes the female more than the male.
We thus see, that although there is a clear and fundamental difference between the mere adhesion of grafted stocks, and the union of the male and female elements in the act of reproduction, yet that there is a rude degree of parallelism in the results of grafting and of crossing distinct species.
The addition of these elements that go beyond crude sensation is said to constitute perception.
These ways, taken together, are called the "cognitive" elements in mind, and it is these that will occupy us most during the following lectures.
At such moments, the roaring of the flames, the crackling of the furious element
, with the tearing of falling branches, and occasionally the thundering echoes of some falling tree, united to alarm the victims.
Nature, in return for his nobleness, had said to him, 'Live in an element of diseased sorrow.
Here is how Carlyle describes his new friend: "A fine, large- featured, dime-eyed, bronze-coloured, shaggy-headed man is Alfred; dusty, smoky, free and easy; who swims outwardly and inwardly with great composure in an articulate element as of tranquil chaos and tobacco smoke; great, now and then when he does emerge; a most restful, brotherly, whole-hearted man.
By adopting smaller and smaller elements
of motion we only approach a solution of the problem, but never reach it.
Vronsky at the first moment felt embarrassed at not even knowing of the first part of the Two Elements
, of which the author spoke as something well known.
The principles of definition, the law of contradiction, the fallacy of arguing in a circle, the distinction between the essence and accidents of a thing or notion, between means and ends, between causes and conditions; also the division of the mind into the rational, concupiscent, and irascible elements
, or of pleasures and desires into necessary and unnecessary-- these and other great forms of thought are all of them to be found in the Republic, and were probably first invented by Plato.