The most commonly used measures of spread are the quoted bid-ask spread and the effective spread
We then aggregate the relative effective spread
using value weights across all common stocks in the Center for Research in Security Prices (CRSP) database with market capitalization data.
This study revealed that when the AP approach is used, introducing the needle at the medial side of the S1 foramen will result in a decreased incidence of intravascular uptake and more effective spread
of the contrast medium.
While these can be done in conjunction with each other, take special attention to having an effective spread
and pay attention to your speed.
The team divided up the available FTE into the most efficient and effective spread
of qualified and non-qualified staff, thinking outside the square and breaking down traditional shift time barriers.
: The effective spread
is the execution cost investors pay.
The year-over-year $3.3 million increase in core earnings was attributable to a $3.5 million after-tax decrease in preferred dividend expense resulting from the redemption of all outstanding shares of Farmer Mac II Preferred Stock in first quarter 2015, a $0.4 million after-tax increase in net effective spread
, and an increase in guarantee fee income of $0.4 million after-tax.
The firm said its net effective spread
was USD 23.7m (75 basis points) in 1Q14, compared to USD 26.3m (90 basis points) in 1Q13.
The effective spread
is measured as (AskBid)/price times 100.
She estimates price impact and effective spread
in both traditional markets and crossing networks for the period 2001 through 2005.
The bond, which offers a real coupon of 6.25 percent, was priced at an effective spread
of 270 basis points over the benchmark ZAR189 government inflation-linked bond.