Having a well-implemented, differentiated service-delivery system (i.e., consistent with practices advocated by both comprehensive developmental guidance
and the ASCA National Model) was associated with a higher graduation rate in career and technical education programs and with higher participation rates for nontraditional students in career and technical education programs.
Dinkmeyer and Caldwell's seminar work (1970, cited in Green & Keys, 2001), "Developmental Counselling and Guidance: A Comprehensive Approach" provided an early direction for establishing developmental guidance
The general career goal that is outlined in comprehensive developmental guidance
programs for the elementary school student is gaining career awareness (Zunker, 2002).
School counselor time use in Nebraska high schools was found to differ greatly from the pattern recommended by comprehensive developmental guidance
(see Gysbers & Henderson, 2000).
Future research should focus on obtaining information from teachers across the nation related to counseling program effectiveness and suggestions on how to optimize collaboration among educational professionals to better promote and implement comprehensive developmental guidance
These authors described a variety of multicultural learning games, including "Bafa Bafa" (Shirts, 1977) and "Multicultural Jeopardy." These activities are intended to promote competence in students' attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and skills, which are all part of a comprehensive developmental guidance
Secondly, school counselors view at-risk behaviors from a developmental guidance
perspective (Stroufe & Rutter, 1984).
Like the Comprehensive Developmental Guidance
Program (Gysbers & Henderson, 2000) movement begun in the 1970s, it repositions the school counselor away from an ancillary role in helping a few students to an integral role in education.
Needed: A new look at developmental guidance
The strategies that were articulated by the school counselors include (a) recognition, (b) relationship building, (c) developmental guidance
, (d) visibility, (e) evaluation and needs assessment, (f) program/activity facilitation, and (g) problem-solving techniques.
For example, Bringman and Lee's article in this issue describes a study that examines whether school counselors' perceptions of their effectiveness in delivering developmental guidance
lessons vary depending on whether they have had previous experience as a classroom teacher.
In their review of school counseling outcome research, Whiston and Sexton (1998) catalogued studies using the four components of a comprehensive developmental guidance