Importantly, biological determinist
approach conceptualizes sex-differentiated roles not only as 'naturally given' but also as largely unchangeable (Coltrane, 1994; Brandser, 1996).
position is that, in a universe governed by the strictest natural laws, all events arise naturally and inevitably from causative factors that follow these laws.
Taking all these things together, it becomes clear that the rescue of both academic and ecological integrity requires a reintegration of humanity into Nature, a reassembling of the pieces shattered by not just irresponsible corporations but by the intellectually irresponsible cultural determinists
who are busy undermining the very thing that we need to save the earth: the discipline and independence of science, of free and fearless investigation unconstrained by aberrant political theories of no relevance, and the integration of evolutionary studies into the social sciences.
It is held by Harris, Daniel Dennett, (3) and many other contemporary determinists
put forward two main arguments to the conclusion that the causal efficacy of our wills is insufficient to ground free will: (1) we are not the ultimate source of our wills, and (2) the operation of our wills is subject to causal laws that dictate only one possible outcome.
A simpler answer to the determinist
hypothesis lies in the role of the conscious observer, whose free choice of the means of observation turns what is merely probable into a physical state that is definite and measurable.
often speak as if the belief in open time is a relic of the prescientific past, but most Western theologians have insisted that time is closed, that one and only one event can happen at any given moment.
Therefore, it comes as no surprise that the same eugenics folklore, genetic determinist
folklore, was the guiding principle in developing the modern science of genetics.
Kitchin (1998) maintains that there are six fundamental perspectives for viewing discussions of the effect of hypertechnology: "Utopist"-futurist, determinist
, constructivist, political-economic, postmodernist, and feminist.
I choose to be gay and prefer that the biological determinists
quit speaking for all gays.
But people who were once "soft" determinists
are now getting a bit "harder" (pardon the pre-feminist, Viagra metaphor) as they reconsider whether communications technologies do, in fact, shape media messages.
They attempted to accommodate the role of chance in the advance of history, and to argue that strict cause-and-effect extrapolation was, in Trevelyan's words, "a misapplication of the analogy of physical science." But the British school of historical idealism that arose in this century was as opposed to counterfactuals as the determinists