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The people who administer a company, create policies, and provide the support necessary to implement the owners' business objectives.


1. The persons or institutions that administer a company. That is, management has the responsibility to direct employees, set and enforce policies, and generally ensure that the company fulfills its goals (which management itself often sets). Management is responsible to the board of directors (of a publicly-traded company) and ultimately to the company's owners. In small companies, owners and managers are often the same people.

2. See: Asset management.


The process of organizing and directing human and physical resources within an ORGANIZATION so as to meet defined objectives. The key management roles are:
  1. planning how to carry out the various activities which are required to achieve the objective. This involves establishing an action programme (see BUSINESS PLAN) and an appropriate organization structure within which tasks can be subdivided (for example into production, personnel, marketing and finance); RESPONSIBILITY for them delegated; and PAY and reward systems instituted (see JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN, WORK ORGANIZATION);
  2. CONTROL, by comparing current performance with that planned in order to monitor progress of the work. Such comparisons reveal where additional resources may be needed to achieve desired performance or when plans may need to be modified in the light of experience;
  3. COORDINATION of the tasks being undertaken, which involves synchronizing and balancing work loads and ensuring effective collaboration between the various DEPARTMENTS and GROUPS within the organization;
  4. MOTIVATION of the members of the organization, encouraging them to work effectively in performing their assigned task.

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY portrayed management as a rational activity largely concerned with establishing routines and procedures for administering the work. More recently this emphasis has been questioned in a number of respects. Research has shown that much of the manager's working day is spent on tasks other than those suggested in this approach, for example attending retirement presentations, responding to telephone enquiries etc. Much of the manager's job involves ad hoc reactions to events. Other research has shown that managers ‘muddle through’, aiming at achieving satisfactory rather than optimum outcomes (see SATISFICING).

Recent writing on management has emphasized the LEADERSHIP aspect of the managerial function. The key issue here concerns the means by which managers can achieve effective performance from their subordinates. Two basic approaches are identified in the literature (on MANAGEMENT STYLE):

  1. task orientation, where managers' relationship with their subordinates is essentially directive, being primarily focused on getting the job done;
  2. people orientation, where managers show a greater concern for their subordinates' well-being, on the grounds that a contented workforce performs effectively.

Some believe that good leaders are born with certain personal qualities whilst others believe that these can be instilled through MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT. Whatever perspective is taken it should be remembered that leadership involves more than a leader: it also involves subordinates and a context. Good leadership is that which produces appropriate behaviour from others in particular situations. See ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS, BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

References in periodicals archive ?
Two studies have allowed the administrative premium to vary with length of time served as department head, but neither study provided a specification rich enough to fully capture the wage growth of department heads.
department heads have to prod staff to meet deadlines and perform
I'm concerned that shifting control of department heads away from the board and delegating it to the CAO could undermine your ability to do that.
Evidence thus far is that department heads have begun to suggest ways to reduce costs and add to their DDA - probably initially to augment their historically small budget for travel and training.
Morse are the only two department heads who live in Sturbridge.
All specialties except family practice gave above-average scores to their specialty department heads and chairman for their impact on changing and improving physicians' practice.
Creamer also argued that a vast majority of the work is being done by the department heads because the interim town administrator is currently working three days a week.
Department head Jonathan Carroll has a 'breadth of knowledge' and is 'capable of thinking outside the box'.
DIVOLC, DHLC, and the leadership portion of SR SODHC are academic, discussion-oriented courses designed to provide Supply Officers with a broad understanding of the various moral, ethical, and leadership philosophies; they are convened after students complete their respective professional courses such as the Basic Qualification Course (BQC), Supply Officer Department Head Course (SODHC), and SR SODHC, which prepare Division Officers and Department Heads for supply assignments on various platforms throughout the Navy.
Later in the meeting, during public comment, Morrison said he was involved in hiring the English department head last year and heard, as soon as the decision was made, that it was "not taken well by the superintendent.
Tevfik Kinik is the only deputy chairman who remains from the previous administration after the major personnel shake-up, while Esra Ada Vural is the sole remaining department head.
Mohammad Idrees Tokhi, environmental department head at the municipality, said the stuff included 119 edibles, cosmetics and beverages recovered from 720 stores and shops in the city.

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