demographic transition


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Fig. 42 Demographic transition. The levelling-off of the rate of population growth during a country's economic development.

demographic transition

a POPULATION cycle that is associated with the ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT of a country. In underdeveloped countries (i.e. subsistence agrarian economies), BIRTH RATES and DEATH RATES are both high, so there is very little change in the overall size of the population. With economic development (i.e. INDUSTRIALIZATION), INCOME PER HEAD begins to rise and there is a fall in the DEATH RATE (through better nutrition, sanitation, medical care, etc.), which brings about a period of rapid population growth. Provided ECONOMIC GROWTH is consistently greater than the increase in population, income per head continues to expand and eventually serves to reduce the BIRTH RATE (small families become the ‘norm’ in society as people seek to preserve their growing affluence). At this point, population growth slows down and may eventually level off.

Most advanced industrial countries have gone through a demographic transition of the kind described above and are today characterized by both low birth and death rates and slow-growing populations. See POPULATION TRAP, DEVELOPING COUNTRY.

References in periodicals archive ?
Galor remarks that the growth rates of income per capita among Western European countries were rather similar during their demographic transition.
Their birth, death, and net migration rates help to characterize Arctic communities with respect to the demographic transition.
Countries such as Mexico, that have reached a less-advanced stage of the demographic transition are afforded, by virtue of their younger populations, a unique but limited window of opportunity to implement policies directed to address the potential adverse effects of population aging on economic development.
Epidemiological transition" is defined as the changes in the physical well-being of people that have been noticed, along with the demographic transition, since the Industrial Revolution (18 (th) century).
I am convinced, however, that the solution lies in the arrangements that recipient countries are going to make in order to accelerate their own demographic transition in the expectation of fully benefiting from their demographic dividend.
The so-called window of opportunity, a special situation that arises during demographic transition, requires adequate policies so that demography can contribute to economic and social development and also to the development of the society's welfare and care for the environment (2,3).
The study of their genetic structure deserves special attention due to demographic transition caused by displacements, fragmentation and migrations (Rehman et al.
Meanwhile, experts said, though the prevalence of HIV/Aids is low in the country, Bangladesh is still at high risk of the deadly disease spreading due to its demographic transition
Recent literature has identified that demographic factors also affect inflation in countries experiencing demographic transition (Yoon et al.
Depending on the circumstances, this means that countries need to spark their demographic transition, accelerate job creation, sustain productivity growth and adapt to aging.
The United States is in the midst of a demographic transition toward a population age structure with a higher fraction of elderly individuals.
This is due to the fact that southern and western States have already undergone a major part of their demographic transition while the northern States have not.