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The need or desire for a good, service, or asset among consumers at a given price. The amount of demand at a given price is determined by supply and the availability of similar or replacements goods and services, among other factors. While demand for some staple products is relatively constant regardless of price, most of the time the price has a large influence on the level of demand. Demand for a good or service tends to increase as its price decreases. See also: Law of supply and demand, Demand curve.


the amount of a product which is purchased at a particular price at a particular point in time. A demand curve is a line showing the relationship between the price of a product and the quantity demanded per time period over a range of possible prices. Demand curves are usually downward sloping, indicating that as the price of the product falls, more is demanded. The extent to which the demand for a product will increase as price falls (and the extent to which demand will drop if the price rises) depends on the product's price-ELASTICITY OF DEMAND. The demand for a product, however, is determined also by a variety of non-price factors. A demand function attempts to incorporate all the factors that have a statistically. significant influence on demand for example, consumers' incomes, the prices of substitute products, advertising, etc. Demand curves will shift if any of these factors change over time.

In practice, firms are unable to derive definitive demand curves because of incomplete information. For this reason many firms use a COST-BASED PRICING formula for determining prices, but allow for the influence of demand by varying the profit mark-up (see DEMAND-BASED PRICING, COMPETITION-BASED PRICING).

There are various methods a firm can use to ‘forecast’ demand, including time series analysis, barometric indicators and econometric models. See SALES FORECASTING.



effective demand

the WANT, need or desire for a product backed by the money to purchase it. In economic analysis, demand is always based on ‘willingness and ability to pay’ for a product, not merely want or need for the product. CONSUMERS’ total demand for a product is reflected in the DEMAND CURVE. Compare SUPPLY.
References in periodicals archive ?
Equilibrium represents a simultaneous solution of the optimization problems of both demanders and suppliers, a perfect and complete coordination of their plans.
Song two is used by all demanders who land in the segment ([X.sub.1], [X.sub.2]), where [X.sub.1] represents the indifference point for the demander between songs one and two, and [X.sub.2] represents the indifference point for the demander between songs two and three.
In addition to this nicely nuanced theoretical extension of the two-level game to recognize the importance of cross-issue variation in domestic decision-making environments, as well as the variable ability of demander countries to take advantage of - or even alter - those environments, Bargaining with Japan is valuable for its thorough rendering of several cases of U.S.-Japan bargaining.
The substitution relationship between products can be established directly from the purchasing pattern of the demanders. Data concerning the behaviour of the demanders provides an indication of the momentary substitutability, and would therefore appear eminently suitable for planning tactical measures.
In the two-unit demand treatment the estimated average bidding strategies are [Mathematical Expression Omitted] and [Mathematical Expression Omitted], where [Mathematical Expression Omitted] and [Mathematical Expression Omitted] are demander i's higher and lower bids respectively, and [Mathematical Expression Omitted] and [Mathematical Expression Omitted] are his higher and lower valuations respectively.
En effet, organisant une marche pacifique pour demander l'ouverture du capital de la SSPA/CRB, des supporters du club ont ete contraints de mettre fin a leur action.
La Tunisie a entame les procedures juridiques pour demander la reception de terroriste algerien Khaled Chaieb (alias Lokman Abou Sakher), selon le journal Achourouk '.
Par Nabil El Choubachy Le stade de l'incompetence a ete tellement depasse, qu'il va falloir demander a la langue francaise de nous offrir un mot encore plus fort pour qualifier ce qui s'est passe cette semaine.
L'opposition venezuelienne a obtenu la validation des signatures necessaires pour franchir la premiere etape en vue de demander la convocation d'un referendum revocatoire contre le president Nicolas Maduro, a annonce vendredi dernier Vicente Bello, coordinateur pour les affaires electorales de la Table de l'unite democratique (MUD), la coalition de l'opposition venezuelienne.