deindustrialization

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Deindustrialization

A situation in which an economy begins producing more services than goods. An analyst may say that deindustrialization is occurring when decreases in manufacturing are accompanied by increases in consulting companies. This can be beneficial to some sectors; indeed, some investors look for evidence of deindustrialization to know what industries are likely to be profitable. However, deindustrialization can be detrimental to some workers and regions. For example, as the United States has deindustrialized, the city of Detroit, which is home to many automakers, has lost approximately half of its population, and consistently maintains a high unemployment rate relative to the rest of the country.

deindustrialization

A shift in an economy from producing goods to producing services. Such a shift is most likely to occur in mature economies such as that of the United States. This shift has considerable impact on investors' view of the attractiveness of various industries.
Deindustrializationclick for a larger image
Fig. 38 Deindustrialization. The distribution of gross national product shows how the industrial sector in advanced economies grows more slowly than the service sector. The figures for industry include those for manufacturing. Source: World Development Report, World Bank, 2004.

deindustrialization

a sustained fall in the proportion of national output accounted for by the industrial and manufacturing sectors of the economy, a process that is often accompanied by a decline in the number of people employed in industry (compare INDUSTRIALIZATION).

There is a well-established trend in advanced economies for the industrial sector to grow more slowly than the service sector, as shown in Fig. 38. For the UK, the share of industry in GDP fell from 43% in 1960 to 29% in 2002, while the share of services increased from 54% to 70%. Over the same period, employment in industry in the UK fell from 11.8 million in 1960 to 3.7 million in 2003.

Changes in sector shares may simply reflect changes in the pattern of final demand for goods and services over time, and as such may be considered a ‘natural’ development associated with a maturing economy. On the other hand, deindustrialization that stems from supply-side deficiencies (high costs, an overvalued exchange rate, lack of investment and innovation) which put a country at a competitive disadvantage in international trade (see IMPORT PENETRATION) is a more serious matter. In this case, deindustrialization often brings with it a fall in national output, rising unemployment and balance of payments difficulties.

The extent of deindustrialization in the UK was even more marked in the early 1980s because of Britain's artificially high exchange rate, bolstered by UK oil exports, which caused Britain to lose overseas markets.

See STRUCTURE OF INDUSTRY, STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT.

References in periodicals archive ?
Little attention has been paid to the subsequent interpretation of the deindustrialised landscapes of these regions despite there being some spectacular examples of creative redevelopment, reflecting both the replacement of industry with elements of the service economy and the increased interest in industrial heritage.
A systematic cultural geography of these redeveloped deindustrialised landscapes is in its infancy in North America, although a varied collection of work has been carried out on the post-industrial waterfronts of Victoria (Hamilton and Simard 1993), Toronto (Desfor et al.
A cultural geography of deindustrialised landscapes in Atlantic Canada suggested by the examples in this article draws heavily on Massey's contention that heritage reflects a sanitised recovering of the past (Massey 1991, in Barnes and Gregory 1997, 315).
The present day deindustrialised landscape (Figure 2), owned by Mount Allison University, consists of a large unpaved parking lot, the University's bookstore and departmental support services building, the Town of Sackville's tourist information centre, and approximately 9 acres (3.
The contemporary deindustrialised landscape stands in stark contrast to the image of industry shown in visual depictions of these foundries in the late 19th and early 20th century, the industrial heyday when attitudes to Atlantic Canadian industry were positive and boosterist.
Here, the time-honoured industrial processes that involve high levels of craft skill and imply a dignity for the industrial worker are seen to be at odds with the image of a deindustrialised Sackville.
Adopting a free market position, advocates of this approach would argue that these deindustrialised local economies would be capable of sorting out their own problems.
Sadler, Local Economy (1987); 'British Coal Enterprise -- Bringing the "Enterprise Culture" to a Deindustrialised Local Economy?
Of course all advanced economies have deindustrialised as manufacturing has declined as a proportion of output but in Britain the falling share has been matched by a massive drop in the absolute numbers employed - even in the US, which Eurosceptics claim is most similar to our own economy the actual total employed in manufacturing has remained reasonably stable.
It will also explore ideas to create wealth in parts of the country that have been struggling to share in prosperity since the 1980s - notably deindustrialised towns in northern England.
A government that deindustrialised Britain, deciding that financial services and the City of London, were of more value than manufacturing.
After World War II, the Americans proposed the Morgenthau plan which proposed a deindustrialised Germany.