A 2010 Congressional Research Service report found that since 1987, debt-for-nature swaps
have channeled upwards of $1 billion toward tropical forest conservation initiatives instead of back into creditor nations' coffers.
Ecuador itself has a history with debt-for-nature swaps
Countries Participating in Three-Party Debt-for-Nature Swaps
, 1987-Present (excluding TFCA transactions) 3 Table 2.
Externat debt, conservation of the nature, Debt-for-Nature Swaps
, Economic instruments, international environmental policy.
generated a great deal of publicity for the international conservation NGOs, such as The Nature Conservancy, World Wildlife Fund and Conservation International, who pioneered them in the 1980s.
Nongovernmental conservation organizations and corporations have become involved in debt-for-nature swaps
, which represent a possible simultaneous solution to these two problems.
CEPAL analyzed nine cases of debt-for-nature swaps
in Latin America (CEPAL, 1991: 116).
Yet Gore, along with many mainstream environmental groups, pushes market-based solutions, such as emissions trading and debt-for-nature swaps
, that increase environmental inequities.
Although debt-debt and debt-equity swaps were discussed in several papers, there was no mention of debt-for-nature swaps
in which debtor nations that are rich in biological resources are allowed to reduce debt in return for preventing wilderness areas.
Finally, he notes that several research institutions in Brazil would like to explore debt-for-science swaps modeled on the well-publicized debt-for-nature swaps
Crucially, though, the debt-for-nature swaps
came with a twist.