can therefore be useful financial mechanisms for helping countries reduce debt without destroying their most valuable natural resources.
Ecuador itself has a history with debt-for-nature swaps
has arranged more than a dozen debt-for-nature swaps
worth upwards of $170 million for conservation's sake, not only in Costa Rica and Guatemala, but also Bangladesh, Belize, Botswana, Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Panama, Paraguay, the Philippines and Peru.
But he has promoted economically based measures like carbon-emissions trading schemes and, internationally, debt-for-nature swaps
Land is acquired through gifts, exchanges, conservation easements, management agreements, purchases from the conservancy's revolving land preservation fund, debt-for-nature swaps
and management partnerships.
Since Kathryn Fuller became president of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) seven years ago, the organization has doubled its revenue and membership, helped secure an ivory ban, promoted the debt-for-nature swaps
in Asia and Latin America, and developed an environmental educational program called "Windows on the Wild" which is currently being introduced into middle school curricula around the country.
Sawhill also serves as a member of the President's Council on Sustainable Development and the Environment for the Americas Board, the group that oversees debt-for-nature swaps
and the establishment of conservation trust funds in several Latin American countries.
But for some countries, they may already be offering significant relief: Madagascar has cut its $100 million commercial bank debt in half through debt-for-nature swaps
Nongovernmental conservation organizations and corporations have become involved in debt-for-nature swaps
, which represent a possible simultaneous solution to these two problems.
CEPAL analyzed nine cases of debt-for-nature swaps
in Latin America (CEPAL, 1991: 116).
Although debt-debt and debt-equity swaps were discussed in several papers, there was no mention of debt-for-nature swaps
in which debtor nations that are rich in biological resources are allowed to reduce debt in return for preventing wilderness areas.
Finally, he notes that several research institutions in Brazil would like to explore debt-for-science swaps modeled on the well-publicized debt-for-nature swaps