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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
When the researchers compared Myogel with the commonly used Matrigel culture medium, they noticed that 66 per cent of the proteins in the products were different.
For both experiments, a temporary immersion system with double flasks (5-liter polyethylene bottles --Figure 1) was used, containing 300 mL of culture medium and 20 explants per bottle.
After this period, aliquots (500 [micro]L) were withdraw to perform the Comet Assay and the remaining cell suspension was concentrated by centrifugation (1000 rpm / 5 minutes), the supernatant discarded, and 5 mL of complete culture medium added with Cytochalasin B in concentration of 5.0 [micro]g / mL culture medium.
After, triple wash with distilled and autoclaved water was performed, and the seeds were in vitro inoculated in MS culture medium (MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962) for germination and growth.
All these factors are directly correlated with the culture medium, because it supports the growth and development of microalgae (Arumugam et al., 2013).
Strategies for fed-batch cultivation of t-PA producing CHO cells: Substitution of glucose and glutamine and rational design of culture medium. J.
The most suitable culture medium CM1 was tested on varying temperature from 30-70o C to determine the most suitable incubation temperature.
The chemically-defined culture medium is preclinical grade, free from human-and animal-derived components, and designed for efficient expansion of undifferentiated human iPS cells.
The urge to design and perform studies in reputable institutes and publish the findings in high impact peerreview journals and the advertising push by companies to present their products, make it difficult for IVF clinics to select the best culture medium for in vitro development of embryos.
The experiment was conducted in quadruplicate, using nine-liter containers, with working volume of eight liters, five liters of each culture medium, and three liters of a pre-culture (inoculums), thus characterizing a stationary cultivation, in which, after inoculation there is no addition of fresh culture during the culture development (LOURENCO, 2006).
Sigma Life Science announced on Wednesday the launch of its Stemline Pluripotent Culture Medium, a novel human pluripotent stem cell culture medium that provides a consistent environment for the long-term maintenance and growth of healthy pluripotent stem cells, for the research & academic community.