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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
On the base of recent study experiences, the chance of getting stable hybridoma with high mAb titer was dependent on cell culture medium, appropriate screening and early subcloning methods in aseptic conditions.
After the determination of the most suitable culture medium, optimum incubation time period was determined.
The Culture Medium is highly suitable for projects aiming for preclinical and clinical development, since it meets rigorous safety requirements for the sourcing of all components.
However, the treatment with the highest average number of roots was 1/4 MS culture medium and the medium prepared with NPK 10-5-5 commercial fertilizer ranked second.
This newly launched Stemline Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture Medium is serum-free, composed of fully-defined components with 80% less basic fibroblast growth factor than the leading pluripotent stem cell culture medium.
Table 1: Analysis of variance of the effect of culture medium and different BA and IBA concentrations on the number and height of produced shoots from axillary bud of eglantine (Rosa foetida).
We also reduced the risk of using clinical cells for humans to the minimum by removing bovine growth factor from culture medium and replacing it by human platelet factor.
Ritter said: "With the conventional test systems, the atmosphere above the cells frequently is not separated cleanly enough from the culture medium, especially along the margins of the membrane.
Basal leaves were excised from shoots cultured in vitro in MS culture medium (MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962) plus 2[micro]M of naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 4[micro]M 6 benzylaminopurine (BAP).