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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
Whether you practice in an emergency department (ED), an inpatient, or a community-based setting, we trust that these articles will guide you both personally and professionally as you encounter challenges in providing culturally competent and end-of-life care.
7] A culturally competent nurse should assess each patient individually and not make assumptions about a patient's beliefs and health practices.
Personal Cultural Ambassadors, who are culturally engaged and influential.
The nursing workforce is culturally diverse and I wanted my 22 participants from Waikato District Health Board to reflect this.
In the library science education programs at the University of Nebraska at Omaha, we recognize the need to include a formal culturally responsive teaching component in our coursework, and have made a concerted effort to raise our candidates' confidence levels as culturally responsive educators by raising their awareness of culturally responsive teaching practices.
The experts were asked: "What teaching strategies or practices promote culturally sensitive learning environments for student nurses?
There is no culturally responsive teaching spoken here: A critical race perspective," Democracy & Education, 20(1).
Through review of literature and original, qualitative research, the study examined the relationship between (1) the goals of skill-based education for sustainability and (2) the goals of culturally relevant education.
Cultural matching of foster children with foster parents has shown a number of benefits over culturally mismatched care.
This reality has led to the evolution of culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP), also known as "culturally appropriate" (Au & Jordan, 1981), "culturally congruent" (Mohatt & Erickson, 1981), "culturally compatible" (Jordan, 1985), or "culturally relevant" (Ladson-Billings, 1994), which is a form of education that is responsive to individual students' cultures (Ladson-Billings, 1995a).
Further, I was mindful of an impending lecture for one of my classes on culturally responsive research, a topic that I had written about (Ford, Moore, Whiting, & Grantham, 2008) and think about almost daily with graduate students and my fellow professionals in gifted education who conduct research with and on Black and other racially different populations.

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