crowding-out effectan increase in GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE that has the effect of reducing the level of private sector spending. Financial crowding-out of the type described in the captions to Fig. 34 would occur only to the extent that the MONEY SUPPLY is fixed, so that additional loanable funds are not forthcoming to finance the government's additional expenditure. If money supply is fixed, then increases in the PUBLIC SECTOR BORROWING REQUIREMENT associated with additional government expenditure will tend to increase interest rates as the government borrows more, these higher interest rates serving to discourage private sector investment. On the other hand, if additional loanable funds were obtainable from, say, abroad, then additional government borrowing could be financed with little increase in interest rates or effect on private investment.
The term ‘crowding-out’ is also used in a broader sense to denote the effect of larger government expenditure in pre-empting national resources, leaving less for private consumption spending, private sector investment and for exports. Such real crowding-out would occur only to the extent that total national resources are fixed and fully employed so that expansion in public sector claims on resources contract the amount left for the private sector. Where unemployed resources can be brought into use, additional claims by both the public and private sectors can be met.