State utilities usually charge a higher tariff from the Railways to cross-subsidize
Indeed, theoretically speaking, high roaming charges can help you cross-subsidize
tariffs in some other more competitive segment," says Mahesh Uppal, a Delhi-based telecom consultant.
"Medicaid rates have implications for residents' care, particularly in those facilities with high Medicaid concentrations where there is limited opportunity to cross-subsidize
with funding from other payers--such as Medicare or private payments.
It tends to be unfair and regressive, forcing people who own fewer than average vehicles to cross-subsidize
those who own more than average vehicles, and reducing housing affordability.
An examination of the mean characteristics of homes that appear to cross-subsidize
is contained in Table 4.
Any attempt to cross-subsidize
the venture with license fee money will be unacceptable to the pubcaster's watchdogs.
with voice or other data services would be against regulations, some argue, but BT has pledged to be open about the economics of the service.
Radwanski's review found evidence that Canada Post, a so-called Crown corporation, was using the price of its stamps to cross-subsidize
the junk mail business, and its courier service, which competes with such private-sector businesses as Purolator Courier Ltd.
In the former case, local governments are subsidizing operations from general revenues; in the latter, the municipal public utilities help cross-subsidize
shortfalls from the profits of other utility departments such as gas, electric power, and water supply operations.
"The ability to cross-subsidize
is diminishing," Dickler points out.
Permitted by the English authorities to own their own wagon companies, railroads used their low-cost rail operations to cross-subsidize
road transport operations, delivering service at a lower price until they wiped out independent teaming operations.