Crack Spread

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Crack Spread

A spread involving oil futures. In a crack spread, an investor takes a long position in crude oil futures and a short position in refined oil futures. This allows the investor to create an artificial position on the price of refining oil. Refineries are the most likely investors to enter into a crack spread. See also: Crush spread.
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Those cracks will be the natural seepage channel for oil and gas, so as to enhance oil and gas recovery.
Keywords: Anodic aluminum oxide, cracks, characterization, tubular membrane, nanostructures
CNewman [3] studied the life of metallic materials using small crack theory for various materials and analyzed the micro structure cracks for the aluminum alloy.
For instance, horizontal cracks run across the grain of the wood and develop just before the tree fails, making them very difficult to detect.
To simulate the actual behavior of reinforced concrete structures precisely, cracks needs to be inserted in the finite element model (FEM).
It is generally believed that under the thermal shock/fatigue load, thermal cracks would nucleate on the surface of the material and cause thermal fatigue failure through crack propagation.
Numerical results for natural frequencies of both isotropic and orthotropic plates with internal cracks were presented using subdomain method by Lee et al.
Residents in Barangay Cantuyoc in Jagna, Bohol province, are living in fear after cracks on the ground appeared following heavy rain that also triggered landslides.
These changes produce a new structural arrangement on zinc substrate and are usually revealed by the generation of cracks in the zinc layer.
This ultrasonic ILI tool detects and sizes axial cracks and crack-like features such as fatigue cracks, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) or weld cracks.
The researchers reviewed the latest understanding in fatigue crack initiation, crack propagation and life prediction with special emphasis on the influences of short cracks and the uncertainty of multiscale flaws and microstructure constituents.