Crack Spread

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Crack Spread

A spread involving oil futures. In a crack spread, an investor takes a long position in crude oil futures and a short position in refined oil futures. This allows the investor to create an artificial position on the price of refining oil. Refineries are the most likely investors to enter into a crack spread. See also: Crush spread.
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After 24 h of anodization the AAO experienced cracks prominently at every edge less electropolished (4min) sample having sharp edges while no any crack appeared in the other sample which was electropolished for double time (8min) as shown in Fig.
Crack growth analysis using fracture mechanics approach:
For instance, horizontal cracks run across the grain of the wood and develop just before the tree fails, making them very difficult to detect.
The developed FEM takes into consideration the effect of the cracking as a discrete crack model.
The thermal shock test is conducted to study the temperature distribution and thermal crack behaviour.
In addition to the open crack, the surface crack breathing is a more practical and common situation during the vibration of the cracked structures [14].
For example, in most new builds and extensions it is common to see shrinkage cracks around windows and doors and at wall and ceiling junctions which are often associated with the drying out of new building materials.
Secondly, we proposed to corroborate the experimental results with analytical and numerical computations, ascertaining where the crack discontinuities spread while considering the three main possibilities of crack development: arrest at the bimaterial interface, crossing into the second material, in our case steel, and finally creating a deflection between the two materials.
Cracking and decohesion of large silicon and iron-rich intermetallic particles, as well as crystallographic shearing from persistent slip bands in the aluminum matrix, play an important role in crack initiation.
The crack tensor describes fracturing of the rock mass with definite orientation of cracks.
It is the second time in as many weeks that hairline cracks have surfaced inside the mammoth double-decker jet, which entered service four years ago, and their discovery is expected to lead to expanded safety checks.
Dividing concrete cracks into structural and non-structural groups can help determine if a crack needs attention.