# correlation

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## Correlation

Statistical measure of the degree to which the movements of two variables (stock/option/convertible prices or returns) are related. See: Correlation coefficient.

## correlation

The relationship between two variables during a period of time, especially one that shows a close match between the variables' movements. For example, all utility stocks tend to have a high degree of correlation because their share prices are influenced by the same forces. Conversely, gold stock price movements are not closely correlated with utility stock price movements because the two are influenced by very different factors. The concept of correlation is frequently used in portfolio analysis. See also serial correlation.

## Correlation.

In investment terms, correlation is the extent to which the values of different types of investments move in tandem with one another in response to changing economic and market conditions.

Correlation is measured on a scale of - 1 to +1. Investments with a correlation of + 0.5 or more tend to rise and fall in value at the same time. Investments with a negative correlation of - 0.5 to - 1 are more likely to gain or lose value in opposing cycles.

## correlation

a statistical term that describes the degree of association between two variables. When two variables tend to change together, then they are said to be correlated, and the extent to which they are correlated is measured by means of the CORRELATION COEFFICIENT.
Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005

## correlation

A former appraisal term, replaced by reconciliation.
The Complete Real Estate Encyclopedia by Denise L. Evans, JD & O. William Evans, JD. Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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A more rigorous application of Zehnder's own correlational model would have found much more use in social science's findings about active conversion.
Sample sizes for major studies ranged from 40 to 881 in descriptive, correlational studies; from 12 to 97 in experimental studies; 12 to 102 in quasi-experimental studies; from 42 to 70 in triangulated studies; and 43 in the qualitative study.
Even so, it means larger sample sizes than most of us use: ideally at least 1000 for correlational studies without repeated measures, and about 100 for controlled trials (depending on the type of controlled trial and the reliability of the dependent variable).
I was surprised to see in Science News, conclusions about causation made on the basis of correlational research ("Keep on Going: Busy seniors live longer, more proof that it pays to stay active" SN: 7/15/06, p.
Ware and Galassi's piece reviews the use of correlational approaches in school counseling research, and Bauman's article discusses comparison group studies.
She covers ethics, defining, measuring and manipulating variables, choosing descriptive methods, organizing data, correctly applying correlational and statistical methods, testing hypotheses and inferential statistics, developing a logic of experiment design, using inferential statistics in two-group designs, using complex experimental designs and nonparametric procedures, and applying the APA communication guidelines.
But with so much emphasis on this type of research, they say qualitative and correlational studies are being ignored.
Although the results of such correlational research do not imply causation, Ogunseitan notes, they can offer insights to guide future research.
More often than not, papers publish correlational data only--which have no relation to cause and effect--and imply cause-and-effect relationships.
Contrasts and effect sizes in behavioral research: A correlational approach.
Reputable researchers have correlational analysis techniques (e.g., factorial modelling, combining factor analysis and regression).
A content correlational and factor analytic study of four tolerance of ambiguity questionnaires.

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