We selected the orthologous gene sets which have undergone adaptive evolution that were also on the site of mutually exclusive AA substitution to identify convergent evolution
by adaptive selection pressure for the monotocous or polytocous traits.
Therefore, while HGT, convergent evolution
and coevolution of BE traits seems less likely, we cannot rule out the possibility of extensive genome reduction in akaryal species.
Certainly, the low sequence identity could also be seemingly explained by convergent evolution
, which means rhodopsin gene appeared independently in microbes and Metazoa.
Future studies should be able to identify whether the protein that mediates high-affinity choline transport in the sea urchin is indeed highly homologous to the transporter in mammalian brain, or whether the two proteins represent convergent evolution
. Regardless of the actual amino acid sequences of the proteins, the main importance, as studied here, lies in the fact that the transporter plays a similar trophic role in sea urchin development as in mammalian brain, and that it responds to neurotoxicants in the same way.
We tested the hypothesis that convergent evolution
of intertidal fishes from central California and central Chile, both cool-temperate regions, has allowed for community convergence by comparing the feeding guilds of Californian fishes with guilds of Chilean fishes.
Condors and vultures, the great gliders of the mountain heights, have very different phylogenetic origins, although convergent evolution
means they show many similarities.
Since the Atlantic silverside is often found in the same habitat as the killifishes, the similarities in their visual systems may be due to convergent evolution
This process, called convergent evolution
, is apparent in dolphins and sharks--one's a mammal, the other's a fish.
Phylogenetic analysis also indicates that similarity in structure among communities of fish (Winemiller 1991), anoles (Losos 1992), and vultures (Hertel 1994) is the result of convergent evolution
in similar environments.
"It is widely accepted that some unrelated plants exhibit similar characteristics under similar environmental conditions, a process known as convergent evolution
," said the co-author.
It would not be the first time that species in different evolutionary lines separately evolved similar characteristics, a phenomenon known as convergent evolution
Trends in the evolution of body size and brain size are covered, as are biogeographic patterns and instances of convergent evolution
. In chapter 8, the authors explore some of the insights that the fossil record can give into the evolution of development in cetaceans.