Specifically, Greco's struggle with skeptical arguments from Descartes (chapter 2), Hume (chapters 2 and 6), and Aristotle (chapter 5), along with his responses to various objections to such arguments (mainly chapters 3 and 4), reveals five theses to which any adequate epistemology must answer: (i) "not all evidential relations are inferential"; (ii) "sensory evidence in particular can be non-inferential"; (iii) "some knowledge can be foundational"; (iv) "inferences that are only contingently
reliable can nevertheless give rise to knowledge"; (v) "knowers can be sensitive to the reliability of their [contingently
reliable] inferences" (p.
Patten, however, sees that freedom for both thinkers involves autonomous agency, that is, abstracting from one's contingently
given desires and inclinations and acting on thought and reason alone.
The main problems with Russellian singular propositions is that they can contain contingently
existing (physical) constituents, and hence can wind up existing contingently
differentiate, sometimes denominatively (by attribution) and sometimes by proportionality (and sometimes both at once) compared to applications to contingently
, existing things" (p.
95-100]; or the Rousseau scholar may not willingly concede that "Rousseauian self-governance is empty as well as only contingently
Such content is extrinsically and contingently
related to what it represents.
At least from the standpoint of understanding relapse, operant SDs, unlike Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relations, have been shown to reinstate extinguished operant responding when presented contingently
and noncontingently on behavior.