Crocker and Wolfe (2001) claimed that contingencies
of self-esteem that depended on the approval or attitudes of other people rather than on one's own behavior or accomplishments should be more difficult to satisfy because these are to a great extent outside one's control, while contingencies
of self-esteem that are more internal should be more controllable and hence easier to satisfy.
Krauss is seeing 85 to 90 percent contingencies
, rather than the 70 to 80 percent recent norm, Krauss said, meaning that the purchaser has to be able to secure a mortgage equivalent to 85 to 90 percent of the purchase price in order to be bound to the contract.
It also produces an objective basis for resolving questions about the need to provide for liability contingencies
. Finally, it provides a useful methodology for demonstrating to the external auditors that the company's tax positions are well considered and properly accounted for in the financial statements.
It is hard to see why it should then tell us to favor some contingencies
(noninherited ones) over others.
For example, in a school setting, the contingency for receiving a corrected assignment is simple and trivial compared to the contingencies
that determine the quality of grade on the assignment (plus the value of this feedback or secondary reinforcement).
radiate insecurity, regardless of rank or skills.
But there can be no explaining it--at least not if contingencies
can be explained only by reference to further contingencies
The first line of research is a series of studies constituting the dissertation experiments by the second author, which involved evaluations of reinforcement contingencies
as a comparison of two conditional probabilities (a probability of a reinforcer given the occurrence of behavior and a probability of a reinforcer given the nonoccurrence of behavior).
Defense and foreign affairs officials from the two sides will start in February studying various scenarios of contingencies
across the Taiwan Strait, in a reflection of U.S.
Tim Shannon, dean of DAU's Capital and Northeast Region, and Mike Mutty, the Marine Corps acting deputy assistant commandant for installations and logistics (contracting), signed the five-year Memorandum of Agreement, marking a clear shift to mission-focused training that supports Marines in worldwide contingencies
such as Afghanistan and Iraq.
Dependent group contingencies
were used to increase the on-task behavior of general education students in third and fourth grade classrooms.