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the process in which managers inform and seek the views of others before finally deciding what course of action to take. It may take place with interested parties outside the organization, for example local authorities, or with those inside. In INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, joint consultation is where managers consult with employee representatives. It differs from COLLECTIVE BARGAINING in that managers do not usually seek formal agreement and in theory NEGOTIATION does not occur. Instead, representatives are there to listen to management plans and to express their views on them. However, since these views may be forcefully expressed and may be backed up by substantial power resources, managers may have to modify or even abandon their plans as a result. Thus the difference between consultation and collective bargaining may therefore be more apparent than real, and may hinge on the procedural distinction that disagreements during consultation cannot normally be carried forward to the next stage of a GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE.

Consultation may occur in a variety of bodies – joint consultative committee, works committee, etc. – and may involve workplace trade union representatives (SHOP STEWARDS) or representatives elected by all employees separately from union channels of representation. In the latter case, the consultative body is often known as the Works Council, after the German name for such institutions (see CO-DETERMINATION).

Traditionally, consultation has been viewed as dealing with minor welfare issues (‘tea ‘n toilets’) though major rationalizations can be the subject of consultation. However, it is a common complaint that employees are either not consulted at all over such important issues or else consultation is left to such a late stage that it is impossible to modify managerial plans. In recent years some companies, e.g. some of the Japanese firms in the UK, have extended consultation to cover issues relating to company strategy whilst legislation has stipulated that information should be disclosed to unions and their representatives relating to REDUNDANCY. Equally, there has been a shift in some organizations from formal joint consultation with employee representatives to direct COMMUNICATION with individual employees. Currently the EUROPEAN WORKS COUNCIL directive of the European Union is requiring that large European firms with plants in more than one member state establish works councils composed of employee representatives from all parts of the company for the purpose of consultation on key issues of company strategy. See DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION, EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT, EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
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Less than a hundred of that are child and adolescent psychiatrists, about 10 are addiction psychiatrists, about 20 are consultation-liaison psychiatrists, and a couple of practices forensic psychiatry, about five are geriatric psychiatrists - too few to address the mental health needs of the Filipinos.
Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry--from theory to clinical practice: an observational study in a general hospital.
The language of consultation-liaison psychiatry fits well within the biomedical model and the biopsychosocial model.
Medical records of Singapore General Hospital in-patients who were referred to consultation-liaison psychiatrists for mental capacity assessment between May and October 2015 were retrospectively reviewed.
"I'm a consultation-liaison psychiatrist, and I think that clears the air from the very beginning," said Dr.
(11) A study done with 199 neurology patients referred to a psychiatric consultation-liaison service revealed that the most common reasons for referral were conversion symptoms, including pain and pseudoseizures.
Through its Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry Fellowship Programme, the psychiatry department at Hamad Medical Corporation ( HMC) has significantly reduced the waiting time for evaluating and treating patients presenting with mental health issues at Hamad General Hospital's (HGH's) emergency department.
Also a clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, he has authored more than 75 papers and book chapters on dissociation, dissociative disorders, sleep disorders, consultation-liaison psychiatry and trauma disorders.
Yamada K, Hosoda M, Nakashima S, Furuta K, Awata S: Psychiatric diagnosis in the elderly referred to a consultation-liaison psychiatry service in a general geriatric hospital in Japan.
PERRY is a child and adolescent psychiatrist who has a private practice in New York City and also works in pediatric psychiatry consultation-liaison at Bellevue Hospital Center.

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