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a disagreement or divergence of interests which may result in one party taking action against another. Conflict can occur at the inter-personal, group or societal level and may involve collective or individual action. It may arise out of simple dislike of another person or out of opposed collective interests. Marxists argue that conflict is endemic to capitalist society. In their view capitalism has created two classes of people, the proletariat (i.e. paid employees) and the bourgeoisie (i.e. entrepreneurs and their supporters), whose interests are diametrically opposed. This opposition of interests in the employment sphere leads to various forms of conflict including sabotage and STRIKES. In Marx's view this conflict would lead to the overthrow of capitalism. That this has not happened in most advanced industrial societies has been attributed to various factors, including rising living standards and the institutionalization of conflict. This is the development of DISPUTES PROCEDURES and mechanisms for COLLECTIVE BARGAINING which have provided TRADE UNIONS and managers with the means to resolve many manifestations of conflict. Putting a grievance into procedure (i.e. passing it to a joint management-union committee for discussion and resolution) tends to take the heat out of an issue, thereby lowering overt conflict. Although industrial conflict has not led to revolution in countries such as the UK, radical observers argue that there is nevertheless still a fundamental conflict of interests at work and that this is manifested in less overt or more indirect forms of conflict, such as ABSENTEEISM and LABOUR TURNOVER, which do not necessarily appear to be explicitly directed against the other party.

As against the Marxist view of two diametrically opposed interests in society PLURALISM suggests that there is a plurality of interests, possibly organized in interest groups, in any society or organization. Although on occasions these interests may conflict, pluralists would dispute that such conflicts are an expression of a fundamental cleavage. Instead conflict tends to arise over specific distributional issues, such as the size of an annual pay increase, and the composition of interest groups varies according to the issue at stake. Indeed some pluralists would go further and assert that there is a basic identity of interests underneath these specific differences. Pluralists argue that conflict can be beneficial in so far as its expression (‘giving voice’) can both reduce the intensity of conflict and provide the impetus to design procedures for resolving differences.

Pluralism has been an influential approach in political science, in the study of INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, and in ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS. In industrial relations pluralists argue that TRADE UNIONS are the expression of distinct employee interests and that recognition of them by managers enables the creation of mechanisms for conflict resolution and hence for managers to regain or maintain control of work. Pluralism has been a less explicit approach in the study of organizations but has nevertheless informed much of the recent work in this area.

For instance, writers have showed that whilst all in the organization may subscribe to the organization's broad goals, various departments may acquire specific and divergent interests relating to their contribution to these goals. These interests are expressed in the decisionmaking process, making it as much a political as a rational or technical process. Although an influential approach, pluralism has been criticized for its assumption that the power of interest groups is more or less equal and that there are no fundamental structural bases to power differences in organizations and society. See INDUSTRIAL DISPUTE, INDUSTRIAL ACTION, MANAGEMENT STYLE.

References in periodicals archive ?
public space to address conflictual topics and issues of concern increases at local level, in particular for women and marginalized people.
To politicize an issue and be able to mobilize support, one needs to represent the world in a conflictual manner "with opposed camps with which people can identify.
Finalmente, se indagan algunas conexiones entre visibilidad y expresividad conflictual, en tanto dimensiones que posibilitan abordar no solo la forma que revisten las acciones colectivas sino tambien los bienes disputados, demandas, redes conflictuales y valoraciones simbolicas que se actualizan en la externalizacion de "un" conflicto bajo la forma de protesta.
The crux of the second article is that while the US-Iran relations are structurally conflictual since the Islamic Revolution in 1979, lately the geopolitical position of Iran in the changing regional security environment, the phenomenon of Islamic State and the agreed framework for a comprehensive nuclear deal raise the likelihood for a detente between Iran and the United States.
She said: "Within this strength-based approach the family environment becomes more nurturing and less conflictual.
Results have shown that adolescents with higher suicidal ideation belong to the so-called unbalanced families (with low cohesion and flexibility) and have a conflictual dependence to their parents.
Romanian SMEs can use The Theory of Games which studies mathematical models in conflictual situations (competitive).
Another parameter used in the analysis is the nature of the event, resulting in conflictual events involving one or more players who are Romanian gypsies and events of non-conflictual situations connected to the people who participated in the event reported.
Militants have launched near-daily attacks on police and army facilities in Sinai, a region mostly populated by Bedouins who have conflictual relations with Egyptian authorities in Cairo.
Mr David said: "I am concerned about it because every police force needs strong coherent leadership and when you have dual and conflictual leadership.
The report, released as part of the council's Global Trends 2030 assessment series, surveys the emerging economic and geopolitical landscape, describes unprecedented policy challenges and outlines a US strategy to avoid a zero-sum, conflictual future and move toward a more cooperative and prosperous 2030.
Hoffman (1984) compared the individuation process of infants, and discovered that there are four dimensions of independence involved in the process of psychological separation in infants: 1) functional independence, or the ability to solve personal problems or not to seek parents' opinions; 2) emotional independence, or freedom from excessive need for approval, intimacy, and emotional support from parents; 3) attitudinal independence, or the development of attitudes, beliefs, and values that are different from those of their parents, and the formation of individual opinions; and 4) conflictual independence, or the ability of adolescents to break free from the guilt, anxiety, distrust, and anger they perceive during conflicts with their parents.