In short, concordats represent a fundamental threat to both democracy and human rights.
Article 52 of the European Constitution effectively ratifies all these concordats at the state and national levels once again and gives them the further protection of the European Constitution.
in Spain, the new centre-left government under Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero has made clear that it wishes to reduce some of the Vatican's traditional privileges, gained by a concordat signed with the dictator Franco.
Yet Cardinal Pacelli justified the concordat on the grounds that he had to face the reality of the Nazi regime and gain diplomatic leverage with a signed document, for if the German government violated the concordat, Ivone reported, then "the Vatican would have at least a treaty on which to base a protest.
Given the reputation of the Holy See for glacial speed, negotiations for a concordat in the spring of 1933 proceeded with uncharacteristic haste.
While the encyclical specifically skewered Nazi Germany for breaking the concordat, the document also attacked the Nazi doctrines of racism and paganism.
4) From the time of Callixtus II (the pope of the Concordat of Worms in 1122) to the present, (5) concordats have been concluded in various forms (the Concordat of Worms, for example, consisted of two separate declarations, one by the pope and one by the emperor), under various names (the term concordat being often reserved for the more solemn and comprehensive agreements, while for the others the terms accord, convention, exchange of notes, protocol, modus vivendi, treaty, and others, are used), and on various matters (traditionally categorized as spiritual, mixed, and temporal).
In studying the impact of the Second Vatican Council on the utilization of concordats to regulate Church-state relations, one encounters an apparent paradox: On the one hand (as will be seen in this article), no teaching is as congenial as that of the Council to concordats; on the other hand, some observers have contended that the Council rang the death bell of the concordat era.
The concordats also regulate recognition of marriages, public school catechisms, and military chaplains.
In late 2003 Caritas, the largest Catholic Church charity in the country, campaigned for legislation based on the church/state concordats that would ban most retail stores from opening on Sundays.
But that is a future book that this work on the concordats should stimulate.
From the 1801 acceptance of this concordat, Roberts surveys French Catholic life, nurtured by Ultramontanism, up to the outbreak of the Modernist movement, condemned by Pius X.