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In this view, the process of concept formation starts with the observation of a number of particular situations.
However, on the basis of the account of observation sketched in the preceding sections this view of concept formation must be rejected.
Hence, Koningsveld concludes, concept formation by means of abstraction presupposes the availability of the very concept to be formed.
In particular, it shows that there is a dynamics of concept formation and articulation that does not have to await the occurrence of exceptions or anomalies.
Why this is so must be developed against the background of Kant's views on the nature of concepts and on empirical concept formation.
With this synopsis of Kant's views on empirical concept formation in hand, we are finally in a position to begin to consider the force and scope of PS in the account of the formation of empirical concepts.
So, the argument goes, were Kant to hold that the categories alone could not vouchsafe this minimal natural order necessary for the possibility of empirical concept formation, the passage in the Appendix would conflict directly with the doctrine of affinity as it is present in the Deduction in such a way that it arrogates to reason a role reserved for constitutive transcendental constraints.
On this interpretation, affinity is the correct statement of Kant's general view on empirical concept formation and the passages in the Appendix involve less general claims.
First, the deflationary proposal explains why Kant situates the problem of empirical concept formation in sections of the Critique whose broader concern involves explanation and scientific methodology.
The Deduction in the first Critique proceeds on the assumption that empirical concept formation is not problematic and that, in fact, we can and do deploy empirical concepts in order to unite manifolds of intuition under a rule for thought.
Fortunately, Kant's analysis of concept formation is unchanged in its essentials from that contained in his lectures of the early 1780's--those contemporaneous with the publication of the first edition of the Critique of Pure Reason.

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