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Fig. 23 Computer. The main items of hardware.

computer

an electronic/electromechanical device which accepts alphabetical and numerical data in a predefined form, stores and processes this data according to the instructions contained in a COMPUTER PROGRAM, and presents the analysed data in an organized form. Fig. 23 shows the main items of computer HARDWARE, with input devices like KEYBOARDS, and magnetic tape readers; the CPU (central processing unit) which manipulates data; DISK DRIVES which provide additional data storage capacity; and output devices like PRINTERS and VISUAL DISPLAY UNITS. The figure shows how a number of computers may be linked in a LOCAL AREA NETWORK, in this case to process customer orders, maintain the sales LEDGER and issue INVOICES.

Big ‘mainframe’ computers are used to handle large databases. For example, the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency in Swansea holds over 60 million records on its mainframe computer. Increasingly, however, with the development of faster, more powerful and more cost-effective microprocessors the mainframe computer has been replaced by the desktop ‘personal computer’ (PC) in routine office data-processing operations (DOWNSIZING), with PCs being linked together in LOCAL AREA NETWORKS, enabling them to share data. A further development has been the introduction of small portable computers typified by the ‘notebook’ personal computer which can be carried in a briefcase.

Computers have dramatically improved the productivity of DATA PROCESSING in business, facilitating the keeping of ACCOUNTING ledger records like sales ledger, purchases ledger and payroll and personal records by small numbers of clerical staff. In addition, software packages like SPREADSHEETS and WORD PROCESSORS have improved the presentation and analysis of management information, helping to improve decision-making. See FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM, PRODUCTION LINE, ELECTRONIC MAIL SYSTEM, COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN, COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING, INFORMATION MANAGEMENT, BULLETIN BOARD, MODEM, INTERNET.

computer

an electronic/electromechanical device that accepts alphabetical and numerical data in a predetermined form, stores and processes this data according to instructions contained in a computer program, and presents the analysed data. Computers have dramatically improved the productivity of data processing in commerce and business; for example, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing systems have improved the speed and cost with which new components or products can be assigned and subsequently scheduled for production;

computer-aided distribution and stock control systems such as ELECTRONIC POINT OF SALE (EPOS) have helped to minimize stockholdings and have improved customer services; computers have rapidly taken over the manual tasks of keeping accounting records such as company sales and payroll. Computers have also played a prominent role in speeding up the response of commodity and financial markets to changing demand and supply conditions by processing and reporting transactions quickly.

In recent years computers have underpinned the rapid expansion of E-COMMERCE using the INTERNET. See STOCK EXCHANGE, AUTOMATION, MASS PRODUCTION.

References in periodicals archive ?
Meanwhile, the prevalent learning theory many designers are using to develop the framework for computer simulations and games is grounded in constructivism.
Frequency response function, obtained from computer simulation, shows vibration amplitudes for every frequency in steady-state.
The aim of this study was to document second-year physiology students' perception of and attitudes to computer simulations when three computer-simulation practicals were incorporated into the laboratory practical curriculum.
Gelbspan claims "the physics behind the altered drought and rainfall patterns are not extraordinarily complicated." Researchers disagree; they find precipitation one of the most difficult variables to get correct in computer simulations. A small error in precipitation has wide-ranging effects on many other variables because air moisture is related to many important processes, such as those involving clouds, soil moisture, vegetation, and temperature.
In spite of this, I am disturbed to see start-up companies staffed with bright but young engineers and scientists who are so enamored with building prototypes that they don't take advantage of the benefits that a computer simulation could give them.
The organizational difference appears when the framework of standards into which metrology has matured (33) is compared with the development of computer simulation over the last five decades.
However, every engineer or researcher involved in computer simulation knows how difficult it is to find a set of equations or formulas from different sources that often use different notations, reference frames, normalization and background assumptions.
Computer simulation of vehicular impacts using an advanced, nonlinear finite element code, such as DYNA3D, is the only practical alternative to full-scale crash testing for the large array of safety performance evaluations that are needed.
* Performing large-scale computer simulations and modeling to enhance classroom science and mathematics instruction and demonstrating the importance of supercomputers in scientific research.
Computer simulation has helped Canada's largest brewer, which operates nine breweries with $1.6 billion in sales, get maximum operating efficiencies out of its existing lines.
Earlier versions of this work were presented at laste year's Society for Computer Simulation Symposium.
Computer simulation exposes students to real-life situations, which would otherwise not be possible because of cost, time, safety, or other factors.

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