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the exchange of information in an ORGANIZATION. For organizations to work effectively, it is vital that information be communicated to those who need it. For example, the pay department would not be able to function properly if it were not notified of employees' hours of work. In this sense organizations can be conceived of as systems for exchanging information. Withholding information, i.e. failure to communicate, can be an effective means of exerting power over others in the organization. If a manager is not fully aware of what is going on in the organization he or she may be unable to influence decisions or events.

Often the effective transmission of information is impeded. As a piece of information is passed from top to bottom of an organization it may be modified by the misinterpretation or bias of each individual involved, so that by the time the information reaches its final destination it has a very different content. Effective communication can also be time-consuming, and hence arduous to perform. However, the effort can be worthwhile since those employees who feel they are not fully informed about matters relevant to their job may become demotivated and dissatisfied. As a result performance suffers. There is also evidence that individuals are more likely to respect bosses who they feel keep them informed. In addition to these ‘behavioural’ aspects of communication the process or ‘technology’ of internal and external communication has changed dramatically in the last decade. For example, conventional telephone systems (based on fixed-wired handsets) have been increasingly augmented by the cordless (mobile) telephone and accessories such as VOICE MESSAGING. Moreover, many businesses have integrated their PC (personal computer) networks and telecommunications to take advantage of value-added network services such as ELECTRONIC MAIL, VIDEO CONFERENCING and ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE. These developments, while enhancing the immediacy and effectiveness of communications, have also facilitated flexibility and mobility, allowing staff to reduce their dependency on being physically present at an office in order to conduct business. See CONSULTATION, EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT, EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION, INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY, COMMUNITY CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL SOCIAL RIGHTS, DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION, INFORMATION MANAGEMENT, INFORMATION HIGHWAY, BUSINESS PROCESS RE-ENGINEERING.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
The present study uses an experimental design to investigate how each of the two communicational approaches outlined above impacts on a person's willingness to engage in treatment after a first contact with a mental health professional.
As we mentioned, there are various scientific communicational channels between universities and research centers, there are many other communicational channels with the aim for improving these scientific collaborations.
These programmes obviously broke with previous productions, on the thematic and systemic levels, and in the construction of a specific communicational space.
Faustian Individualism and the Communicational Ethos of Faith
Mobile phones and other communicational devices using wireless networks work most usually in such frequency bandwidths which are not demanding a high performance of the antennas from the constructional point of view.
For instance, after introducing the notion of communicational genre and the repair activities telecom workers are daily confronted with, Clay Spinuzzi sets activity theory and ANT side by side, after which he presents the historical and regulatory background which led to the emergence of hollowed out businesses in the telecom industry.
The forum, which marks the Jeddah Autism Center's 15th anniversary, aims to shed light on the latest medical, educational and communicational developments in the autism care.
He says the council is advertising the course, which includes lessons in "communicational psychology" and "personal resilience", in a press release.
Such requirements are regarded as 'communicational requirements' as follows in this paper:
Stening and Hammer (1992) noted that there are three major capabilities that can enhance the success of expatriates: stress tolerance, relational ability, and communicational ability.
He also voiced interest in Iran`s trade administrative, informational and communicational experiences.

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